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,166 lAMBLIGHXTS on the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, an 
rians. Translated by Thos. Taylor. Cloth, 8vo. 1895 



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lAMBLICHUS 



ON 



Cfie ^p0tette0 



OF THE 



EGYPTIANS, CHALDEANS, AND ASSYRIANS. 



TBANSLATED FBOM THE GREEK 



BY 

THOMAS TAYLOR. 



ircpi ^«MV. FLUTABOH. 



fteornK euitim. 



LONDON: 
BERTRAM D O B E L L, 

77 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C. 

AND 

REEVES AND TURNER, 

5 WBLUNQTOK STREET, STRAND. 
MDCOOXOV. 



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HARVARD UKIYEVSmr 
CUSSICAi 0£PART»iHT 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



The various translations and original works of 
Thomas Taylor, though still in request by the 
more zealous students of ancient philosophy 
and occult science, have now become so scarce 
and expensive that it is only within the power 
of comparatively wealthy collectors to obtain 
them. This is a matter for regret, inasmuch 
as it cannot be affirmed that his writings have 
been, or are likely to be superseded, or that 
they are without value. They can hardly be 
neglected without- loss by those who desire to 
understand the systems of philosophy which 
satisfied the spiritual needs of the antique 
world. It is not possible, even for the most 
fervent believer in modem "progress," to dis- 
miss the speculations of the ancient philo- 
sophers as antiquated notions which have had 
their day and no longer possess interest or 
value. The names of Socrates, Plato, and Aris- 
totle can never grow dim with age, nor is it 
possible to conceive a time when men shall 
cease to study and reverence them. As the 
disciple, the translator, and the expounder of 



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n 



these and of other sages of antiquity, Thomas 
Taylor deserves to be held in honour and re- 
membrance, and it would be a misfortune if 
his labours remained unknown because of the 
scarcity of his books. It is for this reason that 
the present reprint has been undertaken ; and 
it is hoped that it will meet with such a 
measure of success as may encourage the re- 
publication of various other works by the same 
author. It has been printed in handsome 
style and published at a moderate price in 
order that it may be regarded as a desirable 
addition to the scholar's library, while yet it 
will not tax severely the means of the not 
too wealthy student. For the rest it is only 
necessary to say that this reprint is, in size, 
number of pages, type, and general get-up, an 
almost exact facsimile of the original edition, 
which was first printed in 1821. No altera- 
tions or additions have been made in or to 
the original text, as it is thought that those 
who care for Taylor's writings will prefer to 
have them in their integrity. Should it be 
found possible, however, to continue the series 
it is intended to prefix to a future volume 
an essay on Taylor, which will contain a bio- 
graphy of him, and a critical estimate of his 
writings. 

May, 18d5. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



It appears to me that there are two descrip- 
tions of persons by whom the present work 
must be considered to be of inestimable 
worth, the lovers of antiquity and the lovers 
of ancient philosophy and religion. To the 
former of these it must be invaluable, be- 
cause it is replete with information derived 
from the wise men of the Chaldeans, the 
prophets of the Egyptians, the dogmas of 
the Assyrians, and the ancient pillars of 
Hermes ; and to the latter, because of the 
doctrines contained in it, some of which 
originated fix>m the Hermaic pillars, were 
known by Pythagoras and Plato, and were 
the sources of their phUosophy ; and others 
are profoundly theological, and unfold the 
mysteries of ancient religion with an admir- 
able conciseness of diction, and an inimita- 
ble vigour and elegance of conception. To 



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VUl 



which also may be added, as the colophon 
of excellence, that it is the most copious, 
the clearest, and the most satisfactory de- 
fence extant of genuine ancient theology. 

This theology, the sacred operations per- 
taining to which called theurgy are here 
developed, has for the most part, since the 
destruction of it, been surveyed only in its 
corruptions among barbarous nations, or 
during the decline and faU of the Roman 
empire, with which, overwhelmed with pol- 
lution, it gradually fell, and at length totally 
vanished from what is caUed the poHshed 
part of the globe. This will be evident to 
the intelligent reader from the following 
remarks, which are an epitome of what has 
been elsewhere more largely discussed by 
me on this subject, and which also demon- 
strate the religion of the Chaldeans, Egyp- 
tians, and Greeks to be no less scientific 
than sublime. 

In the first place, this theology celebrates 
the immense principle of things as some- 
thing superior even to being itself; as 
exempt from the whole of things, of which 
it is nevertheless ineffably the source ; and 



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ix 

does not, therefore, think fit to enumerate 
it with any triad* or order of beings. In- 
deed it even apologizes for giving the ap- 
pellation of the most simple of our concep- 
tions to that which is beyond all knowledge 
and all conception. It denominates this 
principle however, the one and the good; 
by the former of these names indicating its 
transcendent simplicity, and by the latter 

* According to this theology, as I have elsewhere shown, 
in every order of things^ a triad is the immediate progeny of 
a monad. Hence the intelligible triad proceeds immediately 
from the ineffable principle of things. Phanes, or intelli- 
gible intellect^ who is the last of the intelligible order, is the 
monad^ leader, and producing cause of a triads which is de- 
nominated V09/T0S Kat votf/>os^ L e. intelligible, and at the same 
time intellectuaL In like manner the extremity of this order 
produces immediately from itself the intellectual triad, 
Saturn, Rhea^ and Jupiter. Again^ Jupiter, who is also the 
Demiurgus^ is the monad of the supermundane triad. 
Apollo^ who subsists at the extremity of the supermundane 
order, produces a triad of liberated Gods. (0coi aTroXvrot.) 
And the extremity of the liberated order becomes the monad 
of a triad of mundane Gods. This theory, too, which is the 
progeny of the most consummate science, is in perfect con- 
formity with the Chaldean theology. And hence it is said 
in one of the Chaldean oracles, ''In every world a triad 
shines forth, of which a monad is the ruling principle** 
(HavTi yap €V KOcrfUf^ Xafivti rpias lys ftovas apx€i), I refer 
the reader, who is desirous of being fully convinced of 
all this, to my translation of Produs on the Theology of 
Plato. 



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its subsistence as the object of desire to all 
beings. For all things desire good. At 
the same time, however, it asserts that these 
appellationsareinrealitynothing more than 
the parturitions of the soul, which, standing 
as it were in the vestibules of the adytum 
of deity, announce nothing pertaining to the 
ineffable, but only indicate her spontaneous 
tendencies towards it, and belong rather to 
the immediate offspring of the first Grod 
than to the first itself. Hence, as the result 
of this most venerable conception of the 
supreme, when it ventures not only to de- 
nominate it, though ineffable, but also to 
assert something of its relation to other 
things, it considers this as preeminently its 
peculiarity, that it is the principle of prind- 
pies; it being necessary that the characte- 
ristic property of principle, after the same 
manner as other things, should not begin 
from multitude, but should be collected into 
one monad as a summit, and which is the 
principle of all principles. 

The scientific reasoning from which this 
dogma is deduced is the following. Ab 
the principle of all things is the one, it is 



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XI 



necessary that the progression of beings 
should be continued, and that no vacuum 
should intervene either in incorporeal or 
corporeal natures. It is also necessary that 
every thing which has a natural progression 
should proceed through similitude. In con- 
sequence of this, it is likewise necessary 
that every producing principle should gene- 
rate a number of the same order with itself, 
viz. nature, a natural number; souly one 
that is psychical {i. e. belonging to soul) ; 
and intellect an intellectual number. For if 
whatever possesses a power of generating, 
generates similars prior to dissimilars, every 
cause must deliver its own form and charac- 
teristic peculiarity to its progeny ; and be- 
fore it generates that which gives subsist- 
ence to progressions, far distant and sepa- 
rate from its nature, it must constitute 
things proximate to itself according to es- 
sence, and conjoined with it through simili- 
tude. It is, therefore, necessary from these 
premises, since there is one imity, the prin- 
ciple of the universe, that this unity should 
produce from itself, prior to every thing 
else, a multitude of natures characterized 



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xu 



by unity, and a number the most of all 
things allied to its cause; and these natures 
are no other than the Gods. 

According to this theology, therefore, 
from the immense principle of principles, 
in which all things causally subsist, ab- 
sorbed in superessential light, and involved 
in unfathomable depths, a beauteous pro- 
geny of principles proceed, all largely par- 
taking of the ineffable, all stamped with the 
occult characters of deity, all possessing 
an overflowing fulness of good. From these 
dazzling summits, these ineffable blossoms, 
these divine propagations, being, life, intel- 
lect, smd, nature, and hody depend ; monads 
suspended from unities, deified natures pro- 
ceeding from deities. Each of these mo- 
nads, too, is the leader of a series which 
extends from itself to the last of things, and 
which, while it proceeds from, at the same 
time abides in, and returns to, its leader. 
And all these principles, and all their pro- 
geny, are finally centred and rooted by 
their summits in the first great all-compre- 
hending one. Thus all beings proceed 
from, and are comprehended in, the first 



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XIU 



being : all intellects emanate from one first 
intellect ; all souls from one first sonl ; all 
natures blossom from one first nature ; and 
all bodies proceed from the vital and lumi- 
nous body of the world. And, lastly, all 
these great monads are comprehended in 
the first one, from which both they and all 
their depending series are unfolded into 
light. Hence this first one is truly the unity 
of unities, the monad of monads, the prin- 
ciple of principles, the God of Gods, one 
and all things, and yet one prior to all. 

No objections of any weight, no argu- 
ments but such as are sophistical, can be 
urged against this most sublime theory, 
which is so congenial to the unperverted 
conceptions of the human mind, that it can 
only be treated with ridicule and contempt 
in degraded, barren, and barbarous ages. 
Ignorance and impious fraud, however, 
have hitherto conspired to defame those 
inestimable works * in which this and many 
other grand and important dogmas can 

♦ Viz. The Philosophical Works of Produs^ together with 
those of Plotinus, Porphyiy^ lamblichus, Syrianus, Ammo- 
nius, Damascius, Olympiodorus, and Simplicius. 



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XIV 



alone be found ; and the theology of the 
ancients has been attacked with all the in- 
sane fury of ecclesiastical zeal, and all the 
imbecile flashes of mistaken wit, by men 
whose conceptions on the subject, like those 
of a man between sleepmg and waking, 
have been turbid and wild, pJiar^iastic and 
confused, preposterous and vain. 

Indeed, that after the great incompre- 
hensible cause of all, a divine multitude 
subsists, cooperating with this cause in the 
production and government of the universe, 
has always been, and is stiU, admitted by 
all nations and all religions, however much 
they may differ in their opinions respecting 
the nature of the subordinate deities, and 
the veneration which is to be paid to them 
by man ; and however barbarous the con- 
ceptions of some nations on this subject 
may be, when compared with those of 
others. Hence, says the elegant Maximus 
Tyrius, ''You will see one according law 
and assertion in all the earth, that there is 
one God, the king and father of all things, 
and many Gods, sons of God, ruling to- 
gether with him. This the Greek says, and 



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XV 

the Barbarian says, the inhabitant of the 
continent, and he who dwells near the sea, 
the wise and the unwise. And if you pro- 
ceed as far as to the utmost shores of the 
ocean, there also there are Gods, rising very 
near to some, and setting very near to 
others/' * 

The deification, however, of dead men, 
and the worshiping men a^ Gods, formed 
no part of this theology, when it is con- 
sidered according to its genuine purity. 
Numerous instances of the truth of this 
might be adduced, but I shall mention for 
this purpose, as unexceptionable witnesses, 
the writings of Plato, the Golden Pytha- 
goric Verses,t and the Treatise of Plutarch 

* Eva iSots av €v waa-a yjj o/AOi/xovov vo/jlov icat Aoyov, on 
6€0S CIS wavTCDV jSoo-tXcvs icai irarqp^ Kai 0€Oi iroXXoi, 0€ov 
iraiScs, irwap)(0VT€s Oet^, ravra icat o cAXiyv Aeyct, icai o j8a/3- 
Papos Aeya, icat o rjfir^iptarqs Kai o daAamos, icai o o-o^s icai 
o ao'o<f>os. K2.V eiri rov cDiccavov cA^s ra? i^lbvas, ic^ica ^eot, rots 
fA€v avur\ovr€s ay)(ov pjOLXa^ rots §€ icaTaSvoftcvoi, Dissert. L 
Edit Princ 

t " Diogenes Laertius says of Pythagoras, that he charged 
his disciples not to give equal degrees of honour to the Gods 
and heroes. Herodotus (in Euterpe) says of the Greeks, 
That they worshiped Hercules two ways, one as an immortal 
deity, and so they sacrificed to him; and another as a Hero, 
and so they celebrated his memory. Isocrates (Encom. He- 



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XVI 

on Isis and Osiris. All the works of Plato, 
indeed, evince the truth of this position, 

len.) distinguishes between the honours of heroes and Gods, 
when he speaks of Menelaus and Helena. But the dis- 
tinction is no where more fiillj expressed than in the Greek 
inscription upon the statue of Regilla, wife to Herodes Atti- 
cus^ as Salmasius thinks^ which was set up in his temple at 
Triopium^ and taken from the statue itself by Sirmondus ; 
where it is said^ That she had neither the honour of a mortal 
nor yet thai wMch was proper to the Gods, 0v3e upa dvti" 
rots, arap ovSe deouriv opoia. It seems hy the inscription 
of Herodes^ and hj the testament of Epicteta^ extant in 
Grreek in the Collection of Inscriptions, that it was in the 
power of particular families to keep festival days in honour 
of some of their own family^ and to give heroical honours to 
them. In that noble inscription at Venice, we find three 
days appointed every year to be kept, and a confratermty 
established for that purpose with the laws of it The first 
day to be observed in honour of the Muses, and sacrifices to 
be offered to them as deities. The second and third days in 
honour of the heroes of the family ; between which honour 
and that of deities, they showed the difference by the dis- 
tance of time between them, and the preference given to the 
other. But whereinsoever the difference lay, that there was 
a distinction acknowledged among them appears by this pas- 
sage of Valerius, in his excellent oration, extant in Dionysius 
Halicamass. Antiq. Rom. lib. ii. p. 696. / call, says he, the 
Gods to witness, whose temples and altars our family has 
worshiped with common sacrifices; and next after them, I 
call the Genii of our ancestors, to whom we give S€vre/)as 
TifMSf the second honours next to the Gods, (as Celsus calls ' 
those, ras irpooTiKovcras rt/Aas, the due honours that belong to 
the lower dasmons,) From which we take notice, that the 
Heathens did not confound all degrees of divine worship, 
giving to the lowest object the same which they supposed to 



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XVll 

but this is particularly maDifest from his 
Laws. The Golden verses order that the 
immortal Gods be honoured first, as they 
are disposed by law : afterwards the illus- 
trious Heroes, underVuch appellation the 
author of the verses comprehends also an- 
gels and daemons, properly so called ; and 
in the last place, the terrestrial daemons, 
i. e. such good men as transcend in virtue 
the rest of mankind. But to honour the 
Gods as they are disposed by law, is, as 
Hierocles observes, to reverence them as 
they are arranged by their demiurgus and 
father ; and this is to honour them as be- 
ings not only superior to man, but also to 
daemons and angels. Hence, to honour 
men, however excellent they may be, as 
Gods, is not to honour the Gods according 
to the rank in which they are placed by 
their Creator; for it is confounding the 
divine with the human nature, and is thus 
acting directly contrary to the Pythagoric 

be due to the celestial deities, or the supreme God. So that 
if the distinction of divine worship will excuse from idolatry^ 
the Heathens were not to blame for it" See Stillingfleet's 
Answer to a book entitled Catholics no Idolaters^ p. 510, 
513; &c. 



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XVUl 

precept. Plutarch too, in his above men- 
tioned treatise, most forcibly and clearly 
shows the impiety of worshiping men as 
Gods* 

''So great an apprehension indeed/' 
says Dr. Stillingfleet,t ''had the Heathens 
of the necessity of appropriate acts of divine 
worship, that some of them have chosen to 
die, rather than to give them to what they 
did not believe to be God. We have a 
remarkable story to this purpose in Arrian 
and CurtiusJ concerningCallisthenes. Alex- 
ander arriving at that degree of vanity as to 
desire to have divine worship given him, 
and the matter being started out of design 
among the courtiers, either by Anaxarchus, 
as Arrian, or Cleo the Sicilian, as Curtius 
says ; and the way of doing it proposed, 
viz. by incense and prostration; Callis- 
thenes vehemently opposed it, a^ that which 
would confound the difference of hwrrmn and 

^ See the extracts from Plutarch, in which this is shown, 
in the Introduction to mj translation of Proclus on the 
Theology of Plato. 

t Answer to Catholics no Idolaters. Lond. 1676. p. 211 

J Arrian. de Exped. Alex. 1. iv. et Curt lib. viii. 



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XIX 

divine worship, which had been preserved in- 
violable among them. The worship of the 
Gods had been kept up in temples, with 
altars, and images, and sacrifices, and 
hymns, and prostrations, and such like; 
hut it is hy n^ means fitting y says he, for ns 
to confound these things, either by lifting up 
men to the honours of the Gods, or depressing 
the Gods to the honours of men. For if Alex- 
ander would not suffer any man to usurp 
his royal dignity by the votes of men ; how 
much more justly may the Gods disdain for 
any man to take their honours to himself. 
And it appears by Plutarch,* that the 
Greeks thought it a mean and base thing for 
any of them, when sent on any embassy to 
the kings of Persia, to prostrate themselves 
before them, because this was only allowed 
among them in divine adoration. There- 
fore, says he, when Pelopidas and Ismenias 
were sent to Artaxerxes, Pelopidas did no- 
thing unworthy, but Ismenias let fall his 
ring to the ground, and stooping for that, 
was thought to make his adoration ; which 

♦ Vit. Artaxerx. iElian. Var. Hist. lib. i. c. 21. 

C 



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XX 



was altogether as good a shift as t&e Jesuits 
advising the crucifix to be held in the man- 
darin's hands while they made their adora- 
tions in the Heathen temples in China. 

Oonon* also refused to make his adoration, 
as a disgrace to his dJty ; and Isocratest 
accuses the Persians for doing it, because 
herein they showed that they despised the Gods 
rather than men, by prostituting their honours 
to their princes. Herodotus mentions Sper- 
chies and Bulis, who could not with the 
greatest violence be brought to give adora- 
tion to Xerxes, because it was against the law 
of their country to give divine honour to men.X 
And Valerius Maximus§ says, ''the Athe- 
nians put Timagoras to death for doing it; oo 
strong an apprehension had possessed them, 
that the manner of worship which they used 
to their Gods, should be preserved sacred 
and inviolable." The philosopher Sallust 
also, in his Treatise on the Gods and the 
World, says, ''It is not unreasonable to 
suppose that unpiety is a species of punish- 
ment, and that those who have had a know- 

♦ Justin, lib. vi. t Panegyr. 

X Lib. vii § Lib. vi. cap. iii. 



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XXI 



ledge of the Gods, and yet despised them, 
will in another life be deprived of this 
knowledge- And it is requisite to make 
the punifi^ment of those who have honoured 
their kings as Gods to consist in being ex- 
pelled from the Gods/' * 

When the ineffable transcendency of the 
first God, which was considered as the 
grand principle in the Heathen religion by 
the best theologists of all nations, and par- 
ticularly by its most illustrious promulga- 
tors, Orpheus, Pythagoras, and Plato, was 
forgotten, this oblivion was doubtless the 
principal cause of dead men being deified 
by the Pagans. Had they properly di- 
rected their attention to this transcendency 
they would have perceived it to be so im- 
mense as to surpass eternity, infinity, self- 
subsistence, and even essence itself, and 
that these in reality belong to those venera- 
ble natures which are, as it were, first un- 
folded into light from the unfathomable 

* Kat KoXaar€Hi9 Se eiSos civai a^etav ovk aireticos. rovs yap 
yvoKTas deovs, Kat icara^/M>n;<ravTas, cvXoyov cv rrcp^ pu^ icac 
n^ yvoNTca^s V€p4(r0at^ xac rovs eavra>v jScurcXcas las dcovs rt/uif}- 
(ravraSj e8ci ti|v Bikyiv avra>v iroirfaai rtav $€(av €Kir«r€iv, 
Cap. xviii. 



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xxu 



depths of that truly mystic UDknown, about 
which all knowledge is refunded into igno- 
rance. For, as Simplicius justly observes, 
" It is requisite that he who ascends to the 
principle of things shoidd investigate whe- 
ther it is possible there can be any thing 
better than the supposed principle ; and if 
something more excellent is found, the 
same inquiry should again be made respect- 
ing that, till we arrive at the highest con- 
ceptions, than which we have no longer any 
more venerable. Nor should we stop in 
our ascent till we find this to be the case. 
For there is no occasion to fear that our 
progression will be through an unsubstan- 
tial void, by conceiving something about 
the first principles which is greater and 
more transcendent than their nature. For 
it is not possible for our conceptions to 
take such a mighty leap as to equal, and 
much less to pass beyond, the dignity of the 
first principles of things.'' He adds, '' This, 
therefore, is one and the best extension [of 
the soul] to [the highest] God, and is, as 
much as possible, irreprehensible ; viz. to 
know firmly, that by ascribing to him the 



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XXlll 

most venerable excellences we can con- 
ceive, and the most holy and primary 
names and things, we^ ascribe nothing to 
him which is suitable to his dignity. It is 
snflBlcient, however, to procure our pardon 
[for the attempt], that we can attribute to 
him nothing superior/'* Kit is not possi- 
ble, therefore, to form any ideas equal to 
the dignity of the immediate progeny of 
the ineffable, i. e. of the first principles of 
things, how much less can our conceptions 
reach that thrice unknown darkness, in the 
reverential language of the Egyptians,t 

* Kat ^^ Tov €iri tos ap)(as avapaivovra fip-cev, €i Svvo- 

TOV ClVOl Ti KfKVTTOV TqS VTrOT€^€Mn/S O'PXl^ '^^'^ <Vp€^, VaXlV 

€9r eiccivov (V/recv, ccds olv cis ras aKpararas €woias cX^w/mv, 
wv ovK€Ti a'€fivoT€pas €)(Ofuv' Kai firi TTjO-ai tijv avapaxriv, 
ovSe yap cvAajStyreov piq Kcvefi/3aTco/uiev, p^i^ova rtva Kai 
W€ppaivovTa ras w/woro? ap\a^ ircpc avrtav cvvo^ktcs, ov yap 
Svvarov rqkiKOvrov vrj&qpxi iny^ijcrac ras rjpj€T€pas cvvotas, <os 
vapttnaOrivai tq o^tji twv ^t/motidv ap^iav^ ov Acyoi Kai vir€pir^ 
n^voi. /ua yap aim; ir/M>s 0€ov avaTotris a/otri;, xai q>$ ^vva- 
TOV airratvos. icai a>v eyvodfuu aya^wv ra <refivorara, xat 
aywyrarOf ko^ irptarovpya, Kai ovopjara Kai irpaypuara avry 
avari6€vras tiSevai jScjSauiis, ort prfitv avarctfetxa/uiCK oi^tov. 
apK€i Sc ly/uv CIS (Tvyyviapifiv^ to fii^Scv e^civ ckcivcov vxtprtpov, 
Simplic. in Epict Enchir. p. 207. Lond. 1670. 8vo. 

t Of the first principles, says Damascius in MS. v€pi 
apxinv, the Egyptians said nothing, but celebrated it as a 
darkness beyond all intellectual conception^ a thrice un- 



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XXIV 



which is even beyond these? Had the 
Heathens, therefore, considered as they 
ought this transcendency of the supreme 
Grod, they would never have presumed to 
equalize the human with the divine nature, 
and consequently would never have wor- 
shiped men as Gods. Their theology, how- 
ever, is not to be accused as the cause of 
this impiety, but their forgeifulness of the 
sublimest of its dogmas, and the confusion 
with which this oblivion was necessarily 
attended. 

But to return to the present work. To 
some who are conversant with the writings 
of Porphyry, who know how high he ranks 
among the best of the Platonists, and that 
he was denominated by them, on account of 
his excellence, the phiiosopher, it may seem 
strange that he should have been so un- 
skilled in theological mysteries, and so 
ignorant of the characteristics of the beings 
superior to man, as by his epistle to Anebo 
he may appear to have been. That he was 
not, however, in reality thus unskilful and 

known darkness. Ilpcim^v oipyjiv awfivrjK<uriv, o-kotos V7r€p 
iTQxrav vovfTiv^ <ricoTos ayvws'ov rpis rovro €iri<fjfrjiu(ovT€s, 



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XXV 

ignorant, is evident from his admirable 
Treatise on Abstinence from Animal Food, 
and hia A<^op^kai irpog ra vonrm, OT Auxiliaries to 
Intelligibles. His apparent ignorance,there- 
fore, must have been assumed for the pur- 
pose of obtaining A more perfect and copious 
solution of thedoubts proposed inhisEpistle, 
thanhe would otherwise have received. But 
at the same time that this is admitted, it 
must also be observed, that he was inferior 
to lamblichus in theological science, who so 
greatly excelled in knowledge of this kind, 
that he was not surpassed by any one, and 
was equaled by few. Hence he was de- 
nominated by all succeeding Platonists the 
divine, in the same manner as Plato, "to 
whom,'' as the acute Emperor Julian re- 
marks, " he was posterior in time only, but 
not in genius." * 

The difficulties attending the translation 
of this work into English are necessarily 
great, not only from its sublimity and no- 

* For farther particulars respecting this most extraordi- 
nary man^ see the introduction to my translation of his Life 
of Pythagoras^ and my History of the Restoration of the 
Platonic Theology. 



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XXVI 

velty, but also from the defects of the origi- 
nal. I have, however, endeavoured to 
make the translation as faithful and com- 
plete as possible; and have oaxxsionally 
availed myself of the annotations of Gale, 
not being able to do so coniinually, because 
for the most part, where philosophy is con- 
cerned, he shows himself to be an inaccu- 
rate, impertinent, and garrulous smatterer. 



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THE 

EPISTLE OF PORPHYRY 



TO THE 



EGYPTIAN ANEBO. 



Porphyry to the Prophet Anebo greeting. 

I COMMENCE my friendship towards you from 
the Gods and good daemons, and from those 
philosophic disquisitions, which have an affinity 
to these powers. And concerning these par- 
ticulars indeed^ much has been said by the 
Grecian philosophers; but, for the most part, 
the principles of their belief are derived from 
conjecture. 

In the first place, therefore, it is granted 
that there are Gods. But I inquire what the 
peculiarities are of each of the more excellent 
genera, by which they are separated from each 
other ; and whether we must say that the cause 
of the distinction between them is from their 
energies, or their passive motions, or from things 

B 



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that are consequent, or from their diflferent 
arrangement with respect to bodies ; as, for 
instance, from the arrangement of the Gods 
with reference to etherial, but of deemons to 
aerial, and of souls to terrestrial, bodies? 

I also ask, why, since [all] the Gods dwell in 
the heavens, theurgists only invoke the terres- 
trial and subterranean Gods? Likewise, how 
some of the Gods are said to be aquatic and 
aerial? And how different Gods are allotted 
different places, and the parts of bodies ac- 
cording to circumscription, though they have 
an infinite, impartible, and incomprehensible 
power? How there will be a union of them 
with each other, if they are separated by the 
divisible circumscriptions of parts, and by the 
^difference of places and subject bodies ? 

How do theologists, or those who are wise in 
divine concerns, represent the Gods as passive, 
to whom on this account, it is said, erect phalli 
are exhibited, and obscene language is used? 
But if they are impassive, the invocations of 
the Gods will be in vain, which announce that 
they tjan appease the anger of the divinities, 
and procure a reconciliation with them; and 
still more, what are called the necessities of 
the Gods, will be vain. For liiat which is 
impassive cannot be allured, nor compelled, 
inor necessitated. How, therefore, are many 



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things, in sacred operations, performed to them 
as passive? Invocations, likewise, axe made 
to the Gods as passive; so that not daemons 
only are passive, but the Gods also, conform- 
ably to what Homer says, 

" And flexible are e'en the Gods themselves." * 

But if we assert with certain persons, that the 
Gods are pure intellects, but that daemons, be- 
ing psychical, participate of intellect ; in a still 
greater degree will pure intellects be incapable 
of being allured, and will be unmingled with 
sensible natures. Supplications, however, are 
foreign to the purity of intellect, and therefore 
are not to be made to it. But the things which 
are oflFered [in sacred rites] are oflfered as to 
sensitive and psychical essences. 

Are, therefore, the Gods separated from dae- 
mons, through the former being incorporeal, 
but the latter corporeal ? If, however, the Gods 
are incorporeal alone, how will the sun and 
moon, and the visible celestials, be Gods ? 

How, likewise, are some of the Gods benefi- 
cent, but others malefic ? 

What is it that connects the Gods in the 
heavens that have bodies, with the incorporeal 
Gods? 

♦ Iliad, lib. x. v. 493. 

B2 



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What is it that distinguishes daemons from 
the visible and invisible Gods, since the visible 
are connected with the invisible Gods ? 

In what do a daemon, hero, and soul, diflFer 
from each other ? Is it in essence, or in power, 
or in energy ? 

What is the indication of a God, or angel, or 
archangel, or daemon, or a certain archon, or 
soul being present? For to speak boastingly, 
and to exhibit a phantasm of a certain quality, 
is common to Gods and daemons, and to all 
the more excellent genera. So that the genus 
of Gods will in no respect be better than that 
of daemons. 

Since the ignorance of, and deception about, 
divine natures is impiety and impurity, but a 
scientific knowledge of the Gods is holy and 
beneficial, the ignorance of things honourable 
and beautiful will be darkness, but the know- 
ledge of them will be light. And the former, 
indeed, will fill men with all evils, through the 
want of erudition, and through audacity; but 
the latter will be the cause to them of every 
good. [I wish you, therefore, to unfold to me 
the truth respecting these particulars.*] 

[And, in the first place, I wish you to explain 

* Gale has omitted to give the original of the sentence 
contained in the brackets ; the translation of which I have 
added from the answer of lamblichus to this epistle. 



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to me distinctly*] what that is which is eflFected 
in divination? For we frequently obtain a 
knowledge of future events through dreams, 
when we are asleep; not being, at that time, 
in a tumultuous ecstasy, for the body is then 
quiescent; but we do not apprehend what 
then takes place, in the same manner as when 
we are awake. 

But many, through enthusiasm and divine 
inspiration, predict future events, and are then 
in so wakeful a state, as even to energize 
according to sense, and yet they are not con- 
scious of the state they are in, or at least, not 
so much as they were before. 

Some also of those who suflfer a mental 
alienation, energize enthusiastically on hearing 
cymbals or drums, or a certain modulated 
sound, such as those who are Corybantically 
inspired, those who are possessed by Sabazius, 
and those who are inspired by the mother of 
the Gods. But some energize enthusiastically 
by drinking water, as the priest of Clarius, in 
Colophon; others, by being seated at the 
mouth of a cavern, as those who prophesy at 
Delphi; and others by imbibing the vapour 
from water, as the prophetesses in Branchidae* 
Some also become enthusiastic by standing on 

♦ Here also the original is omitted by Gale, and the 
translation of it is given by me from the text of lamblichus. 



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characters, as those that are filled from the in- 
tromission of spirits. Others, who are con- 
scious what they are doing in other respects, 
are divinely inspired according to the phan- 
tastic part; some, indeed, receiving darkness 
for a cooperator, others certain potions, but 
others incantations and compositions : and 
some energize, according to the imagination, 
through water ; others in a wall, others in the 
open air, and others in the sun, or in some 
other of the celestial bodies. Some also esta- 
blish the art of the investigation of futurity 
through the viscera, through birds, and through 
the stars. 

I likewise ask concerning the mode of divi- 
nation, what it is, and what the quality by 
which it is distinguished ? All diviners, indeed, 
assert, that they obtain a foreknowledge of 
future events through Gods or daemons, and 
that it is not possible for any others to know 
that which is future, than those who are the 
lords of futurity. I doubt, therefore, whether 
divinity is so far subservient to men, as not to 
be averse to some becoming diviners from 
meal. 

But, concerning the causes of divination, it is 
dubious whether a God, an angel, or a daemon, 
or some other power, is present in manifesta- 
tions, or divinations, or certain other sacred 



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energies, as is the case with those powers that 
are drawn down through you [priests] by the 
necessities with which invocation is attended. 

Or does the soul assert and imagine these 
things, and are they, as some think, the pas- 
sions of the soul, excited from small incen- 
tives? 

Or is a certain mixed form of subsistence 
produced from our soul, and divine inspiration 
externally derived ? 

Hence it must be said, that the soul gene- 
rates the power which has an imaginative per- 
ception of futurity, through motions of this 
kind, or that the things which are adduced 
from matter constitute deemons, through the 
powers that are inherent in them, and especially 
things adduced from the matter which is taken 
from animals. 

For in sleep, when we are not employed 
about any thing, we sometimes obtain a know- 
ledge of the future. 

But that a passion of the soul is the cause of 
divination, is indicated by this, that the senses 
are occupied, that fumigations are introduced, 
and that invocations are employed; and like- 
wise, that not all men, but those that are more 
simple and young, are more adapted to pre- 
diction. 

The ecstasy, also, of the reasoning power is 



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8 

the cause of divination, as is likewise the mania 
which happens in diseases, or mental aberra- 
tion, or a sober and vigilant condition, or suffu- 
sions of the body, or the imaginations excited 
by diseases, or an ambiguous state of mind, 
such as that which takes place between a sober 
condition and ecstasy, or the imaginations arti- 
ficially procured by enchantment. 

Nature, likewise, art, and the sympathy of 
things in the universe, as if they were the parts 
of one animal, contain premanifestations of 
certain things with reference to each other. 
And bodies are sb prepared, that there is a 
presignification of some by others, which is 
clearly indicated by the works performed in 
predicting what is future. For those who in- 
voke the divinities for this purpose, have about 
them stones and herbs, bind certain sacred 
bonds, which they also dissolve, open places 
that are shut, and change the deliberate inten- 
tions of the recipients, so as from being de- 
praved to render them worthy, though they 
were before depraved. Nor are the artificers 
of efficacious images to be despised. For they 
observe the motion of the celestial bodies, and 
can tell from the concurrence of what star 
with a certain star or stars, predictions will be 
true or false ; and also whether the things that 
are performed will be inanities, or significant 



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and efficacious, though no divinity or daemon is 
drawn down by these images. 

But there are some who suppose that there 
is a certain obedient genus of dsemons, which 
is naturally fraudulent, omniform, and various, 
and which assumes the appearance of Gods 
and daemons, and the souls of the deceased; 
and that through these every thing which ap- 
pears to be either good or evil is effected ; for 
they are not able to contribute any thing to 
true goods, such as those of the soul, nor to 
have any knowledge of them, but they abuse, 
deride, and frequently impede those who are 
striving to be virtuous. They are likewise full 
of pride, and rejoice in vapours and sacrifices. 

Jugglers likewise fraudulently attack us in 
many ways, through the ardour of the expec- 
tations which they raise. 

It very much indeed perplexes me to under- 
stand how superior beings, when invoked, are 
commanded by those that invoke them, as if 
they were their inferiors; and they think it 
requisite that he who worships them should 
be just, but when they are called upon to act 
unjustly, they do not refuse so to act. Though 
the Gods, likewise, do not hear him who in- 
vokes them, if he is impure from venereal con- 
nexions, yet, at the same time, they do not re- 
fuse to lead any one to illegal venery. 



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10 

[I am likewise dubious with respect to sacri- 
fices, what utility or power they possess in the 
universe, and with the Gods, and on what 
account they are performed, appropriately in- 
deed, to the powers who are honoured by 
them, but usefully to those by whom the gifts 
are offered.*] 

Why also do the interpreters of prophecies 
and oracles think it requisite that they should 
abstain from animals, lest the Qods should be 
polluted by the vapours arising from them; 
and yet the Gods are especially allured by the 
vapours of animals ? 

Why is it requisite that the inspector [who 
presides over sacred rites] ought not to touch a 
dead body, though most sacred operations are 
performed through dead bodies? And why, 
which is much more absurd than this, are 
threats employed and false terrors, by any 
casual person, not to a daemon, or some de- 
parted soul, but to the sovereign Sun himself, 
or to the Moon, or some one of the celestial 
Gods, in order to compel these divinities to 
speak the truth? For does not he who says 
that he will burst the heavens, or unfold the 

* The paragraph within the brackets is omitted in the 
original ; but I have supplied it from the following answer 
of lamblichus to this Epistle. This omission is not noticed 
by Gale. 



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11 

secrets of Isis, or point out the arcanum in the 
adytum, or stop Bans, or scatter the members 
of Osiris to Typhon, [or that he will do some- 
thing else of the like kind *], does not he who 
says this, by thus threatening what he neither 
knows nor is able to eflfect, prove himself to be 
stupid in the extreme? And what abjectness 
does it not produce in those who, like very silly 
children, are possessed with such vain fear, 
and are terrified at such fictions? And yet 
Chseremon, who was a sacred scribe, writes 
these things, as disseminated by the Egyptians. 
It is also said, that these, and things of the like 
kind, are of a most compulsive nature. 

What also is the meaning of those mystic 
narrations which say that a certain divinity is 
unfolded into light from mire, that he is seated 
above the lotus, that he sails in a ship, and 
that he changes his forms every hour, accord- 
ing to the signs of the zodiac ? For thus, they 
say, he presents himself to the view, and thus 
ignorantly adapt the peculiar passion of their 
own imagination to the God himself. But if 
these things are asserted symbolically, being 
symbols of the powers of this divinity, I re- 
quest an interpretation of these symbols. For 

* Here likewise the words within the brackets, which are 
omitted in the original, are added from lamblichus ; but the 
omission is not noticed by Gale. 



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12 

it is evident, that if these are similar to passions 
of the Sun, when he is eclipsed, they would be 
seen by all men who intently survey the God. 

What also is the design of names that are 
without signification? and why, of such, are 
those that are barbaric preferred to our own? 
For if he who hears them looks to their signifi- 
cation, it is sufficient that the conception re- 
mains the same, whatever the words may be 
that are used. For he who is invoked is not 
of the Egyptian race ; nor, if he was an Egyp- 
tian, does he use the Egyptian, or, in short, any 
hunlan language. For either all these are the 
artificial contrivances of enchanters, and veils 
originating from our passions, which rumour 
ascribes to a divine nature; or we ignorantly 
frame conceptions of divinity, contrary to its 
real mode of subsistence. 

I likewise wish you to unfold to me, what 
the Egyptians conceive the first cause to be ; 
whether intellect, or above intellect? whether 
alone, or subsisting with some other or others ? 
whether incorporeal, or corporeal ; and whether 
it is the same with the Demiurgus, or prior to 
the Demiurgus? Likewise, whether all things 
are from one principle, or from many prin- 
ciples? whether the Egyptians have a know- 
ledge of matter, or of primary corporeal quali- 
ties; and whether they admit matter to be 



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13 

unbegotten, or to be generated? For Chsere- 
mon, indeed, and others, do not think there is 
any thing else prior to the visible worlds ; but 
in the beginning of their writings on this sub- 
ject, admit the existence of the Gods of the 
Egyptians, but of no others, except what axe 
called the planets, the Gods that give com- 
pletion to the zodiac, and such as rise together 
with these ; and likewise, the sections into 
decans, and the horoscopes. They also admit 
the existence of what are called the powerful 
leaders, whose names are to be found in the 
calendars, together with their ministrant offices, 
their risings and settings, and their significations 
of future events. For Chaeremon saw that 
what those who say that the sun is the Demi- 
urgus, and likewise what is asserted concern* 
ing Osiris and Isis, and all the sacred fables, 
may be resolved into the stars and the phases, 
occultations and risings of these, or into the in- 
crements or decrements of the moon, or into 
the course of the sun, or the nocturnal and 
diurnal hemisphere, or into the river [Nile]. 
And, in short, the Egyptians resolve all things 
into physical, and nothing into incorporeal and 
living essences. Most of them likewise sus- 
pend that which is in our power from the 
motion of the stars ; and bind all things, though 
I know not how, with the indissoluble bonds 



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14 

of necessity, which they call fate. They also 
connect fate with the Gods; whom, neverthe- 
less, they worship in temples and statues, and 
other things, as the only dissolvers of fate. 

Concerning the peculiar dsemon, it must be 
inquired how he is imparted by the lord of the 
geniture, and according to what kind of efflux, 
or life, or power, he descends from him to us ? 
And also, whether he exists, or does not exist? 
And whether the invention of the lord of the 
geniture is impossible, or possible? For if it 
is possible he is happy, who having learned the 
scheme of his nativity, and knowing his proper 
dsemon, becomes liberated from fate. 

The canons, also, of genethliology [or predic- 
tion from the natal day] are innumerable and 
incomprehensible. And the knowledge of this 
mathematical science cannot be obtained; for 
there is much dissonance concerning it, and 
Chseremon and many others have written 
against it. But the discovery of the lord, or 
lords, of the geniture, if there are more than 
one in a nativity, is nearly granted by astix>lo- 
gers themselves to be unattainable, and yet 
they say that on this the knowledge of the 
proper daemon depends. 

Farther still, I wish to know whether the 
peculiar daemon rules over some one of the 
parts in us ? For it appears to certain persons, 



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15 

that dsemons preside over the parts of our 
body, so that one is the guardian of health, 
another of the form of the body, and another 
of the corporeal habits, and that there is one 
dsemon who presides in common over all these. 
And again, that one daemon presides over the 
body, another over the soul, and another over 
the intellect ; and that some of them are good, 
but others bad. 

I am also dubious whether this dsemon is not 
a certain part of the soul, [such, for instance, as 
the intellectual part;] and if so, he will be 
happy who has a wise intellect. 

I see likewise, that there is a twofold worship 
of the peculiar dsemon; the one being the 
worship as of two, but the other as of three. 
By all men, however, the daemon is called upon 
by a common invocation. 

I farther ask, whether there is a certain 
other latent way to felicity, separate from the 
Gods ? And I am dubious whether it is requi- 
site to look to human opinions in divine divi- 
nation and theurgy? And whether the soul 
does not devise great things from casual cir- 
cumstances ? Moreover, there are certain other 
methods which are conversant with the predic- 
tion of future events. And, perhaps, those 
who possess divine divination, foresee indeed 
what will happen, yet are not on this account 



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16 

happy; for they foresee future events, but do 
not know how to use this knowledge properly. 
I wish, therefore, that you would point out to 
me the path to felicity, and show me in what 
the essence of it consists. For with us [Greeks] 
there is much verbal contention about it, be- 
cause we form a conjecture of good from human 
reasonings. But by those who have devised 
the means of associating with beings more ex- 
cellent than man, if the investigation of this 
subject is omitted, wisdom will be professed by 
them in vain ; as they will only disturb a divine 
intellect about the discovery of a fugitive slave, 
or the purchase of land, or, if it should so 
happen, about marriage, or merchandize. And 
if they do not omit this subject, but assert what 
is most true about other things, yet say nothing 
that is stable and worthy of belief about felicity, 
in consequence of emplopng themselves about 
things that are difficult, but useless to man- 
kind ; in this case, they will not be conversant 
either with Gods or good daemons, but with 
that dsemon who is called fraudulent; or, if 
this is not admitted, the whole will be the in- 
vention of men, and the fiction of a mortal 
nature. 



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SambUclms* on tje Jlssttties, ^l 



THE 

ANSWER OF THE PRECEPTOR ABAMMON 

TO THE 

EPISTLE OF PORPHYRY TO ANEBO, 

AND A 

SOLUTION OF THE DOUBTS CONTAINED IN IT. 



SECTION I. 



CHAR I. 

Hermes, the God who presides over language, 
was formerly very properly considered as com- 
mon to all priests ; and the power who pre- 
sides over the true science concerning the Gods 

* The following testimony of an anonjnnous Greek writer, 
prefixed to the manuscript of this treatise, which Gale pub- 
lished, proves that this work was written by lamblichus : 
lareov ori o </)iAo(ro</>os UpoKXos VTrofivrjfmTi^dyv ras rov 
fieyoXov HXianvov cvvcaSas, Aeyet oft o avriypaifxav €is rrjv 

C 



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18 

is one and the same in the whole of things. 
Hence our ancestors dedicated the inventions 
of their wisdom to this deity, inscribing all 
their own writings with the name of Hermes. 
If, therefore, we participate of a portion of this 
God, adapted and commensurate to our powers, 
you do well to propose your theological doubts 
to the priests, as friends, and to make these 
doubts known to them. I also very properly 
conceiving that the epistle sent to my disciple 
Anebo was written to me, shall give you a true 
answer to your inquiries. For it would not 
be becoming, that Pythagoras and Plato, De- 
mocritus and Eudoxus, and many other of 

7rpoK€ifi€vrjv Tov llop<l>vpiov eiTL'ooX'qv, o 6€(nr€<rios €^tv lafi- 
l3Xi\os' Kai 8ia TO rrjs V7roO€(r€(t)S olk€iov Kai aKoXovOov, viroKpi- 
V€Tai irpofTitytrov AiywTLov rivos A^afjLWVos' aXAa KaL to Tqs 

X€^€(l}S KOflfXaTLKOV Kttl a<f>OpL^LKOVy KaL TO TWV €VVOi<l>V TT/Day/XOl- 

TiKOVy KaL y\a<^vp0Vy KaL €v6ovv, [xapTvp€L TOV TLpoKXov KttAws 
Kttt K/otvavTo, KaL L^^oprjcavra, i, e. '' It is requisite to know 
that the philosopher Proclus, in his Commentary on the Enne- 
ads of the great Plotinus, says that it is the divine lamblichus 
who answers the prefixed Epistle of Porphjny, and who as- 
sumes the person of a certain Egyptian of the name of Abam- 
mon, through the affinity and congruity of the hypothesis. 
And, indeed, the conciseness and definiteness of the diction, 
and the efficacious, elegant, and divine nature of the concep- 
tions, testify that the decision of Proclus is just." That this, 
indeed, was the opinion of Proclus, is evident from a passage 
in his Gjmmentaries on the Timseus of Plato, which has 
escaped the notice of Gale, and which the reader will find in 
a note on the fourth chapter of the eighth section of the 
following translation. 



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19 

the ancient Greeks, should have obtained ap- 
propriate instruction from the sacred scribes 
of their time, but that you who are our con- 
temporary, and think conformably to those 
ancients, should be frustrated of your wish by 
those who are now living, and who are called 
common preceptors. I, therefore, thus betake 
myself to the present discussion ; and do you, 
if you please, conceive that the same person to 
whom you sent the letter returns you an answer. 
Or, if it should seem fit to you, admit it to be 
me who discourses with you in writing, or 
some other prophet of the Egyptians, for this is 
of no consequence. Or, which I think is still 
better, dismiss the consideration whether the 
speaker is an inferior or a superior character, 
but direct your attention to what is said, so as 
readily to excite your mind to survey whether 
what is asserted is true or false. 

In the first place, therefore, we shall divide 
the genera of the proposed problems, in order 
that we may know the quantity and quality of 
them. And, in the next place, we shall show 
from what theologies the doubts are assumed, 
and according to what sciences they are in- 
vestigated. For some things that are badly 
confused, require a certain distinction ; others 
are conversant with the cause through which 

c2 



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they subsist, and are apprehended ; others, 
which we propose according to a certain con- 
trariety, draw our decision on both sides ; and 
some things require from us the whole develop- 
ment of mystic doctrines. Such, therefore, 
being the nature of the subjects of discussion, 
they are assumed from many places, and from 
diflferent sciences. For some things introduce 
animadversions from what the wise men of the 
Chaldeans have delivered ; others produce ob- 
jections from what the prophets of the Egyp- 
tians teach ; and there are some that, adhering 
to the theory of philosophers, make inquiries 
conformably to them. There are now like- 
wise some, that from other opinions, which do 
not deserve to be mentioned, elicite a certain 
dubitation ; and others originate from the com- 
mon conceptions of mankind. These things, 
therefore, are of themselves variously disposed, 
and are multiformly connected with each other. 
Hence, through all these causes, a certain dis- 
cussion is requisite for the management of them 
in a becoming manner. 



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CHAP. II. 

We shall, therefore, deliver to you the peculiar 
dogmas of the Assyrians; and also clearly 
develop to you our own opinions ; collecting 
some things from the infinite writings of the 
ancients, but others from those particulars 
which were comprehended by the ancients in 
one treatise, and pertain to the whole know- 
ledge of divine natures. If also you should 
propose any philosophic inquiry, we shall dis- 
cuss it for you, according to the ancient pillars 
of Hermes, which Plato and Pythagoras knew 
before, and from thence constituted their phi- 
losophy. But such things as exhibit foreign 
inquiries, or which are contradictory and con- 
tentious, we shall assist mildly and aptly, or 
we shall demonstrate their absurdity. Such, 
likewise, as proceed conformably ^ to common 
conceptions, we shall endeavour to discuss in 
a way perfectly known and clear. And things, 
indeed, which require the experience of divine 
operations to an accurate knowledge of them, 
we shall explain, as far as this is possible to 
be eflfected by words alone; but such as are 

* In the original Kara ras Koivas cvvotas, which Gale 
erroneously translates contra communes opiniones. 



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ftill of intellectual theory, we shall develop 
with a view to the purification of the soul. 
But indications of this theory worthy of notice 
may be mentioned, by which it is possible for 
you, and those who resemble you, to be con- 
ducted by intellect to the essence of [real] 
beings. And with respect to such things as 
become known by a reasoning process, we 
shall leave no one of these without a perfect 
demonstration. But in all things we shall 
give to each that which is appropriate. And 
such questions, indeed, as are theological, we 
shall answer theologically; such as are the- 
urgic, theurgically ; but such as are philosophi- 
cal, we shall, in conjunction with you, philo- 
sophically explore. Of these, also, such as 
extend to first causes, we shall unfold into 
light, by following them conformably to first 
principles. But such as pertain to morals, or 
to ends, we shall fitly discuss, according to the 
ethical mode. And, in a similar manner, we 
shall examine other things methodically and 
appropriately. Let us, therefore, now betake 
ourselves to your inquiries. 



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CHAR III. 

In the first place, therefore, you say, " it micst 
be granted that there are GodsJ' Thus to 
speak, however, is not right on this subject. 
For an innate knowledge of the Gods is co- 
existent with our very essence ; and this know- 
ledge is superior to all judgment and deliberate 
choice, and subsists prior to reason and de- 
monstration. It is also counited from the be- 
ginning with its proper cause, and is consub- 
sistent with the essential tendency of the soul 
to the good. If, indeed, it be requisite to speak 
the truth, the contact with divinity is not know- 
ledge. For knowledge is in a certain respect 
separated [from its object] by otlierness* But 
prior to the knowledge, which as one thing 
knows another, is the uniform connexion with 
divinity, and which is suspended from the 
Gods, is spontaneous and inseparable from 
them. Hence, it is not proper to grant this, as 

* Damascius irc/^i ap^tnv says, ''that difference not ex- 
isting, there will not be knowledge." And, " that the con- 
tact as of one with one is above knowledge." Likewise, 
" that the intellectual perception of the first intelligible is 
without any difference or distinction, ertporriros ft^ oxxn]^^ 
fir^Se yvdxris c^ai. Et (rvva<fyrj 0)s €Vos irpos cv, wep yvtacnv. 
Alibi, aSuLKpiTOs rj tov irptarov vorjrov vorj(ris. 



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if it might not be granted, nor to admit it as 
ambiguous (for it is always unically established 
in energy) ; nor are we worthy thus to explore 
it, as if we had sufficient authority to approve 
or reject it. For we are comprehended in it, 
or rather we are filled by it, and we possess 
that very thing Which we are, [or by which 
our essence is characterized] in knowing the 
Gods. 

I shall likewise say the same thing to you, 
concerning the more excellent genera that fol- 
low the Gods, I mean daemons, heroes, and 
undefiled souls.'^ For it is necessary to under- 
stand respecting these, that there is always in 
them one definite reason of essence, and to 
remove from them the indefiniteness and in- 
stability of the human condition. It is like- 
wise requisite to separate from them that in- 

* Between souls that always abide on high with purity, 
such as the souls of essential heroes^ and those that de- 
scend into the regions of mortality, and are defiled with 
vice, such as the souls of the greater part of mankind, the 
class of middled soids subsists. These descend into the 
realms of generation, partly from that necessity by which all 
human soids are, at times, drawn down to the earth, and 
partly for the benevolent purpose of benefiting those of an 
inferior class. But they descend without being defiled with 
vice. They are also called heroes, Kara (r\€(riv, L e, accord- 
ing to habitude, in order to distinguish them from essential 
heroes. And, in the Pythagoric Golden Verses, they are 
denominated the terrestrial heroes. 



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clination to one side of an argument rather 
than another, arising from the equilibrium of a 
reasoning process. For a thing of this kind is 
foreign from the principles of reason and life, 
and rather tends to secondary natures, and to 
such things as pertain to the power and contra- 
riety of generation. But it is necessary that 
the more excellent genera should be appre- 
hended uniformly. 

The connascent perception, therefore, of 
the perpetual attendance of the Gods, will 
be assimilated to them. Hence, as they have 
an existence which is always invariably the 
same, thus also the human soul is conjoined 
to them by knowledge, according to a same- 
ness of subsistence; by no means pursuing 
through conjecture, or opinion, or a syllo- 
gistic process, all which originate in time, an 
essence which is above all these, but through 
the pure and blameless intellections which the 
soul received from eternity from the Gods, be- 
coming united to them. You, however, seem 
to think, that there is the same knowledge of 
divine natures as of any thing elsej and that 
one thing, rather than another, may be granted 
from opposites, in the same manner as it is 
usual to do in dialectic discussions. There is, 
however, no similitude whatever between the 
two kinds of knowledge. For the knowledge of 
divine natures is diflferent from that of other 



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things, and is separated from all opposition. It 
likewise neither subsists in being now granted, 
or in becoming to be, but was from eternity, 
uniformly consubsistent with the soul. And 
thus much I say to you concerning the first 
principle in us, from which it is necessary those 
should begin who speak or hear any thing 
about the natures that are superior to us. 



CHAP. IV. 



With respect to your inquiry, " what the pecu- 
liarities are in each of the more excellent genera^ 
by which they are separated from each other f^' 
if you understand by peculiarities the specific 
differences under the same genus, which are 
distinguished by opposite qualities, as the 
rational and irrational under animal; we by 
no means admit peculiarities of this kind, in 
things which neither have one common essence, 
nor an equal contradistinction, nor receive a 
composition from something common, which is 
indefinite, and defines the peculiarity. But if 
you apprehend the peculiarity to be, as in prior 
and secondary natures, differing in their whole 
essence and whole genus, a certain simple con- 
dition of being, definite in itself; in this case, 



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your conception of peculiarities will be reason- 
able. For these peculiarities of things, which 
have an eternal subsistence, are simple, and 
entirely exempt The inquiry, however, pro- 
ceeds imperfectly. For it was necessary, in 
the first place, to inquire what the peculiarities 
are of the more excellent genera, according to 
essence ; in the next place, what they are 
according to power ; and thus afterwards, what 
they are according to energy. But, as your 
question now stands, with respect to the pecu- 
liarities by which these genera are separated, 
you alone speak of the peculiarities of energies. 
Hence you inquire concerning the difference in 
the last things pertaining to them; but you 
leave uninvestigated such things as are first, 
and most honourable in them, and which are 
the elements of their difference. In the same 
place, also, something is added concerning 
'^efficacious and passive motions ^'^ which is a 
division by no means adapted to the difference 
of the more excellent genera. For the contra- 
riety of action and passion is not inherent in 
any one of them ; but their energies are unre- 
strained, immutable, and without habitude to 
their opposites. Hence, neither must we ad- 
mit in them motions of sucH a kind as arise 
from action and passion. For neither do we 
admit in the soul a self-motion, which consists 



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of the mover and that which is moved; but 
we conceive that it is a certain simple essential 
motion, subsisting from itself,* and not possess- 
ing a habitude to another thing, and exempt 
from acting on, and suflfering from, itsel£ Who, 
therefore, can endure* that the peculiarities of 
the genera superior to the soul, should be 
distinguished according to active or passive 
motions ? 

That also which is added by you, ^^ or of 
accidents" is foreign from these genera. For 
in composites, and things which exist together 
with, or in others, or are comprehended by 
others, some things are conceived to be prece- 
daneous, but others consequent; and some as 
essences, but others, as afterwards acceding to 
essences. For there is a certain coarrange- 
ment of them, and incongruity and interval in- 
tervenes. But, in the more excellent genera, 
all things must be conceived in ry eivai, i. e. in 
merely existing ; and wholes have a precedane- 
ous subsistence, are separate by themselves, 
and have not their hypostasis from, or in others ; 
so that there is not any thing in them which is 
accidental. Hence the peculiarity of them is 
not characterized from accidents. 

At the end, likewise, of your inquiry, you 

* For avrqv cavrots ovcrav in this place, it is necessary to 
read avrqv €avrqs ova-av. 



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introduce a distinction according to nature. 
For your question asks, '^ How essences are 
known hy energies^ hy physical motions^ and by 
accidents f" The very contrary, however, to all 
this takes place. For if energies and motions 
were constitutive of essences, they would be 
the lords of the diflference which is between 
them. But if essences generate energies, the 
former being separate prior to the latter, will 
impart to motions, energies, and accidents, that 
by which they diflfer from each other. This, 
therefore, subsists contrarily to what you sup- 
pose, for the purpose of discovering the pecu- 
liarity which you now investigate. 

In short, whether you think that there is one 
genus of the Gods, one of daemons, and in a 
similar manner of heroes, and souls essentially 
incorporeal; or whether you admit that these* 
are severally many, you inquire what the diflfe- 
rence of them is according to peculiarities. 
For if you apprehend that each of these is one 
[and the same genus] the whole arrangement of 
scientific theology is confounded. But if, as 
truth requires, you admit that they are gene- 
rically distinguished, and that there is not in 
them one common essential definition, but that 
those of them which are prior, are exempt from 
those that are inferior, it is not possible to dis- 
cover their common boundaries. And even if 



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this were possible, this very thing would de- 
stroy their peculiarities. In this way, there- 
fore, the object of investigation cannot be found* 
He, however, he who directs his attention to the 
analogous sameness which exists in superior 
natures, as, for instance, in the many genera of 
the Gods, and again in ds8mons and heroes, 
and, in the last place, in souls, will be able to 
define their peculiarities. Hence through this, 
it is demonstrated by us what the rectitude is 
of the present inquiry, and what its [accurate] 
distinction, and also in what manner it is im- 
possible, and in what manner it is possible, 
for it to subsist. 



CHAP. V. 



In the next place, let us direct our attention to 
the solution of your inquiries. There is, there- 
fore, the good itself which is beyond essence^ 
and there is that good which subsists accord- 
ing to essence; I mean the essence which is 
most ancient and most honourable, and by 
itself incorporeal. And this is the illustrious 
peculiarity of the Gods, which exists in all 
the genera that subsist about them, preserving 



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their appropriate distribution and order, and 
not being divulsed from it, and at the same 
time being inherent with invariable sameness in 
all the Gods, and their perpetual attendants. 

In souls, however, which rule over bodies, 
and precedaneously pay attention to them, and 
which, prior to generation, have by themselves 
a perpetual arrangement, essential good is not 
present, nor the cause of good, which is prior to 
essence ; but to these a certain participation * 
and habit, proceeding from essential good, ac- 
cedes ; just as we see that the participation of 
beauty and virtue is very diflFerent [in these 
souls] from that which we behold in men. For 
the latter is ambiguous, and accedes to com- 
posite natures as something adventitious. But 
the former has an immutable and never failing 
establishment in souls, and neither itself ever 
departs from itself, nor can be taken away by 
any thing else. Such, therefore, being the be- 
ginning and end in the divine genera, conceive 
two media between these extreme boundaries, 
viz. the order of heroes, which has an arrange- 
ment more' elevated than that of souls, in 
power and virtue, in beauty and magnitude, 
and in all the goods which subsist about souls, 
and which, though it entirely transcends the 

* For €irox>7 here, I read /a€tox>7. 



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psychical order, yet, at the same time, is proxi- 
mately conjoined to it, through the alliance of 
a similar formed life. But the other medium, 
which is suspended from the Gods, though it is 
for inferior to them, is that of daemons, which is 
not of a primarily operative nature, but is sub- 
servient to, and follows the beneficent will of 
the Gods. It likewise unfolds into energy the 
invisible good of the Gods, being itself assimi- 
lated to it, and gives completion to its fabrica- 
tions conformably to it. For it renders that 
which is ineflfable in the good of the Gods 
effable, illuminates that which is formless in 
forms, and produces into visible reasons [or 
productive forms] that which in divine good is 
above all reason. Receiving also a connascent 
participation of things beautiful, it imparts and 
transfers it, in unenvying abundance, to the 
genera posterior to itself. These middle genera, 
therefore, give completion to the common bond 
of the Gods and souls, and cause the connexion 
of them to be indissoluble. They also bind 
together the one continuity of things from on 
high as far as to the end; make the commu- 
nion of wholes to be inseparable ; cause all 
things to have the best, and a commensurate 
mixture ; in a certain respect, equally transmit 
the progression from more excellent to inferior 
natures, and the elevation from things posterior 



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to such as are prior ; insert in more imperfect 
beings order and measures of the communica- 
tion which descends from more excellent na- 
tures, and of that by which it is received ; and 
make all things to be familiar and coadapted to 
all, supemally receiving the causes of all these 
from the Gods. 

You must not, therefore, think that this divi- 
sion is the peculiarity of powers or energies, 
or of essence ; nor assuming it separately, must 
you survey it in one of these. But by extend- 
ing it in common through all the genera, you 
will give perfection to the answer concerning 
the peculiarities of Gods, daemons, and heroes, 
and also of those in souls which are now the 
subjects of your inquiry. 

Again, however, according to another mode 
of considering the subject, it is necessary to 
ascribe to the Gods the whole of that which is 
united, of whatever kind it may be ; that which 
is firmly established in itself, and which is the 
cause of impartible essences ; the immoveable, 
which also is to be considered as the cause of 
all motion, and which transcends the whole of 
things, and has nothing in common with them ; 
and the unmingled and the separate, understood 
in common in essence, power and energy, and 
every thing else of this kind. But that which 

D 



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is now separated into multitude, and is able to 
impart itself to other things, and which receives 
from others bound in itself, and is sufficient in 
the distributions of partible natures, so as to 
give completion to them; which also partici- 
pates of the primarily operative and vivific, 
having communion with all real and generated 
beings ; receives a commixture from all things, 
imparts a contemperation to all things from 
itself, and extends these peculiarities through 
all the powers, essences, and energies, in itself; 
all this we shall truly ascribe to souls, by assert- 
ing that it is naturally implanted in them. 



CHAP. VI. 



What, therefore, shall we say concerning the 
media? I think, indeed, that from what has 
been before said, they will be manifest to every 
one ; for these give completion to the indivisi- 
ble connexion of the extremes. Nevertheless, 
it is necessary to be more explicit. I consider, 
therefore, the dsemoniacal tribe to be multiplied, 
but, unitedly, to be comingled, but in an un- 
mingled manner, and to comprehend all other 



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things of a subordinate nature, according to the 
idea of that which is more excellent. But 
again, the tribe of heroes supemally presides 
over a more obvious division and multitude, 
and likewise over motion, commixture, and 
things allied to these. It also receives gifts of 
a more excellent nature, concealed as it were 
inwardly; I mean union, purity, a firm estab- 
lishment, impartible sameness, and a transcen- 
dency above other things. For one of these 
middle genera is proximate to the first, but the 
other to the last, of the extremes. But it rea- 
sonably follows, according to continuity of 
alliance, that the medium which begins from 
the most excellent natures, should proceed to 
such as are less excellent ; but that the medium 
which primarily produces a contact with the 
last of things, should also in a certain respect 
communicate with the natures that transcend 
it. From these media, also, the completion 
may be seen of the first and last genera, and 
this entirely connascent, in a similar manner, 
in existence, in power, and in energy. As we 
have, therefore, in these two ways, perfectly 
completed the division of the four genera, we 
shall deem it suflScient in the others, to exhibit 
the extreme peculiarities alone, for the sake of 
conciseness, and because what remains,, i. e. 
the comprehension of the media, is in a certain 

D 2 



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respect evident. But the media themselves, 
as being known from the extremes, we shall 
omit; making a definition of the extremes in 
the shortest way, as follows. 



CHAP. VII. 



Op the extremes, therefore, one is supreme, 
transcendent, and perfect ; but the other is last 
in dignity, deficient, and more imperfect. And 
the former, indeed, is capable of accomplishing 
all things at once, uniformly in an instant ; but 
the latter is neither able to effect all things, 
nor at once, nor suddenly, nor impartibly. The 
former also generates and governs all things, 
without being inclined towards them ; but the 
latter is naturally disposed to verge, and be 
converted to the things which it generates 
and governs. And the former, indeed, as 
primordial and cause, precedes all things in 
power; but the latter, being suspended from 
the will of the Gods, as from a cause, is from 
eternity consubsistent with it. The former, 
likewise, according to one vigorous acme, com- 
prehends the ends of all energies and essences ; 
but the latter passes from some things to others, 



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and proceeds from the imperfect to the perfect. 
Farther still, to the former that which is highest 
and that which is incomprehensible pertain, 
and also that which is better than all measure, 
and is in such a manner formless, as not to be 
circumscribed by any form; but the latter is 
vanquished bj^ inclination, habitude, and pro- 
pensity ; and is detained by appetites directed 
to that which is less excellent, and by fami- 
liarity with secondary natures. Hence, in the 
last place, it is formalized by all various mea- 
sures derived from them. Intellect, therefore, 
which is the leader and king of all beings, and 
which is the demiurgic art of the universe, is 
always present with the Gods with invariable 
pameness, perfectly, and without indigence, 
being purely established in itself, according to 
one energy. But soul participates of a partible 
and multiform intellect, having its attention 
directed to the government of the whole. It 
also providentially attends to inanimate natures, 
becoming at diflferent times ingenerated in diflfe- 
rent forms. 

From the same causes, therefore, order and 
beauty itself are consubsistent with the more 
excellent genera; or, if some one had rather 
admit it, the cause of these is consubsistent 
with them. But with soul, the participation of 
intellectual order and divine beauty is always 
present. And with the former, indeed, the 



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measure of wholes, or the cause of this, per- 
petually concurs. But soul is terminated by 
the divine boundary, and participates of this 
in a partible manner. To the former, also, 
empire over all beings, through the power and 
domination of cause, may be reasonably as- 
cribed. But soul has certain distinct bounda- 
ries, as far as to which it is able to have do- 
minion. Such, therefore, being the diflferent 
peculiarities in the extremes, it will not be 
difficult to understand what we have now said, 
and to perceive the middle peculiarities of 
dd8mons and heroes, which are allied to each 
of the extremes, possessing a similitude to 
each, departing from both to the medium, and 
embracing a concordant communion comingled 
from them, and connected vdth it in appro- 
priate measures. Such, therefore, must be 
conceived to be the peculiarities of the first 
divine genera. 



CHAP. VIII. 



But neither must we admit that cause of the 
distinction of these genera which you sub- 
join, viz. " that it is an arrangement with 
reference to different bodies ; as^ for instance^ 



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of Gods to eiherial bodies^ hut of dcemons to 
aerial bodies^ and of souls to such as are ter^ 
reneJ* For such an arrangement as this, which 
resembles that of Socrates to a tribe, when 
he is a senator, is unworthy of the divine 
genera, because all of them are essentially un* 
restrained and free. To which may be added, 
that it is dreadfully absurd to ascribe to bodies 
a principal power of giving a specific distinc- 
tion to the first causes of themselves. For 
bodies are in servile subjection to these causes, 
and are ministrant to generation. And farther 
still, the genera of the more excellent natures 
are not in bodies, but the former externally 
rule over the latter. Hence they are not 
changed in conjunction with bodies. Again, 
they impart from themselves to bodies every 
such good as they are able to receive, but they 
themselves receive nothing from bodies ; so 
that neither will they derive from them certain 
peculiarities. For if they were as the habits 
of bodies, or as material forms, or were in 
some other way corporeal-formed, it would, 
perhaps, be possible for them to be changed 
together with the differences of bodies. But 
if they are separate from bodies, and essentially 
preexist unmingled with them, what reason- 
able distinction, produced from bodies, can be 
transferred to them? To which also may be 



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added, that this assertion of yours makes 
bodies to be more excellent than the divine 
genera, since the former afford a seat to supe- 
rior causes, and insert in them peculiarities 
essentially. He, therefore, who coarranges 
allotments, distributions, and consociations of 
governors with the governed, will evidently 
assign a principal authority to more excellent 
natures. For, because the presiding powers 
are such [as we have shown them to be], on 
this account they have such an allotment, and 
give to it an essential specific distinction, but 
they are not assimilated to the nature of their 
receptacles. 

It is necessary, therefore, to admit a thing of 
this kind in partial souls. For such as is the 
life which the soul received, prior to its insertion 
in a human body, and such as the form which 
it readily exerted ; such also is the organical 
body which it has suspended from itself, and 
such, the consequent corresponding nature, 
which receives the more perfect life of the 
soul. But with respect to more excellent 
natures, and which, as wholes, comprehend 
the principle [of parts] in these, inferior are 
produced in superior natures ; bodies, in incor- 
poreal essences ; things fabricated, in the fabri- 
cators ; and, being circularly comprehended in, 
are directed and governed by, them. Hence, 



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the circulations of the celestial bodies, being 
primarily inserted in the celestial circulations 
of the etherial soul, are perpetually inherent 
in them ; and the souls of the worlds [i. e. of 
the spheres], being extended to their intellect, 
are perfectly comprehended by it, and are pri- 
marily generated in it. Intellect, also, both 
that which is partial and that which is uni- 
versal, is in a similar manner comprehended 
in the genera that are more excellent than in- 
tellect. Since, therefore, second are always 
converted to first natures, and superior are the 
leaders of inferior essences, as being the para* 
digms of them, hence essence and form accede 
to subordinate from superior natures, and 
things posterior are primarily produced in such 
as are more excellent ; so that order and mea- 
sure are derived from primary to secondary 
beings, and the latter possess that which they 
are from the former. But the contrary must 
not be admitted, viz. that peculiarities emanate 
from things less excellent to the natures which 
precede them. 

Hence, through these things such a corporeal- 
formed division as you introduce, is demon- 
strated to be false. It is, indeed, especially 
necessary not to propose any thing of this 
kind; but if this should appear to you to be 
requisite, yet you must not think, that what is 



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false deserves to be discussed. For such a 
discussion does not exhibit a copiousness of 
arguments; but he wearies himself in vain, 
who, proposing things that are false, endeavours 
afterwards to subvert them, as things that are 
not true. For how is it possible that an 
essence, which is of itself incorporeal, and 
which has nothing in common with the bodies 
that participate of it, should be distinguished 
from other things by corporeal qualities ? How 
can that which is not locally present with 
bodies, be separated by corporeal places ? And 
how can that which is not inclosed by the 
partible circumscriptions of subjects, be parti- 
bly detained by the parts of the world ? What, 
also, is that which can prevent the Gods from 
being every where? And what can restrain 
their power from extending as far as to the 
celestial arch ? For to eflfect this, must be the 
work of a more powerful cause, which is able 
to inclose and circumscribe them in certain 
parts. But truly existing being, and which is 
essentially incorporeal, is every where, where- 
ever it may wish to be. And that which is 
divine, and which transcends all things, would 
[if what you say were admitted] be transcended 
by the perfection of the whole world, and, as 
a certain part, would be comprehended by it. 
Hence, it would be inferior to corporeal magni- 



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tude. I do not, however, see after what man- 
ner these sensible natures could be produced 
and specifically distinguished, if there was no 
divine fabrication, and if no participation of 
divine forms, extended through the whole 
world. 

In short, this opinion wholly subverts sacred 
institutions, and the theurgic communion of the 
Gods with men ; since it exterminates from the 
earth the presence of the more excellent genera. 
For it says nothing else than that divine dwell 
remote from earthly natures, and that this our 
place of abode is deserted by them. Accord- 
ing to this assertion, therefore, neither can we, 
that are priests, learn any thing from the Gods, 
nor do you rightly inquire of us, as knowing 
more than others, since we shall diflfer in no 
respect from other men. 

No one, however, of these assertions is sane. 
For neither are the Gods detained in certain 
parts of the world, nor are terrene natures 
destitute of their providential attention. But 
the divinities are characterized by this, that 
they are not comprehended by any thing, and 
that they comprehend all things in themselves. 
But terrestrial natures possess their existence 
in the pleromas^ of the Gods ; and when they 
become adapted to divine participation, then 
* Vis, In the plenitudes, or total perfections, of the Gods. 



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prior to their own proper essence, they imme- 
diately possess the Gods, which [latently] pre- 
existed in it. 

Through these things, therefore, we have 
shown that the whole of this division is false ; 
that the method [employed by you] of investi- 
gating peculiarities is irrational; and that to 
suppose the government of the Gods is fixed in 
a certain place, is by no means to apprehend 
the whole essence and power which is in them. 
It would have been proper, therefore, to have 
omitted the opposite inquiry made by you, 
about this distribution of more excellent na- 
tures, as not contradicting in any respect true 
conceptions. Because, however, it is necessary 
rather to direct the attention to true science, 
but not to dispute with men, on this account, 
we also shall adapt the present inquiry to a 
certain rational and theological apprehension. 



CHAP. IX. 



I CONSIDEK you, therefore, as asking, for it is 
your inquiry, " Why^ since the Gods dwell in 
the heavens alone, there are invocations hy theur- 
gistsofterrestrialand subterranean Gods ? " For 



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what you assert in the beginning is not true, 
that the Gods circumvolve in the heavens alone : 
since all things are full of them. You also in- 
quire, " How some of the Gods are said to he 
aerial^ and different Gods are allotted different 
places, and circumscribed portions of bodies, 
though they possess infinite, impartible, and in- 
comprehensible power ? And how, likewise, there 
will be a union of them with each other, as they 
are separated by divisible circumscriptions of 
parts, and by difference of places and subject 
bodies ? " Of all these, therefore, and an infinite 
number of other similar questions, one and the 
best solution will be obtained by surveying the 
mode of divine allotment. 

A divine nature, therefore, whether it is 
allotted certain parts of the universe, such as 
heaven or earth, or sacred cities and regions, 
or certain groves, or sacred statues, externally* 
illuminates all these, in the same manner as 
the sun externally irradiates all things with his 
rays. Hence, as light comprehends the things 
which are illuminated by it, thus also the 
power of the Gods externally comprehends 
its participants. As, likewise, the solar light 
is present with the air in an unmingled man- 
ner ; but this is manifest from no light being left 

* i. e. Without habitude, proximity, or alliance to the' 
things which it illuminates. 



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in the air, when once that which illuminated it 
has departed, though heat is still present with 
it, when that which heated it is entirely with- 
drawn ; thus also the light of the Gods illumi- 
nates separately, and being firmly established 
in itself, wholly proceeds through all beings. 
Moreover, the light which is the object of sen- 
sible perception, is one, continuous, and every 
where the same, whole ; so that it is not possible 
for any part of it to be separate and cut oflF 
from the whole, nor to be inclosed in a circle, 
nor at any time to depart from its illuminating 
source. After the same manner, therefore, 
the whole world being partible, is divided 
about the one and impartible light of the Gods. 
But this light is every where one and the same 
whole, and is impartibly present with all things 
that are able to participate of it; through an 
all perfect power fills all things, and by a cer- 
tain causal comprehension, incloses and termi- 
nates the whole of things in itself, and is every 
where united to itself, and conjoins ends to 
beginnings. This too, all heaven and the world 
imitating, revolve with a circular motion, are 
united to themselves, and lead the elements 
which are carried round in a circle. Hence 
the world causes all things to be in each other, 
and to tend to each other, makes the end of one 
thing to coalesce with the beginning of another. 



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as, for instance, earth with heaven, and pro- 
duces one connexion and concord of wholes 
with wholes. 

Will not, therefore, he who surveys this con- 
spicuous statue of the Gods, thus united to 
itself, be ashamed to have a diflFerent opinion 
of the Gods, who are the causes of it, so as to 
introduce among them sections, and separa- 
tions, and corporeal-formed circumscriptions? 
I, indeed, should think, that every one would 
he thus disposed. For if there is no ratio, no 
habitude of symmetry, no communion of es- 
sence, nor a connexion either in capacity or in 
energy, between that which is adorned and the 
adorning cause ; if this be the case, there will 
neither be found in the world a certain exten- 
sion according to interval, nor local compre- 
hension, nor partible interception, nor any other 
such like connascent equalization in the pre- 
sence of the Gods [with mundane natures]. 
For in things which are of a kindred nature, 
according to essence and power, or which are, 
in a certain respect, of the same species, or 
homogeneous, a certain comprehension, or con- 
servation, may be discovered. But in such 
things as are entirely exempt from all mundane 
wholes, what opposing circumstance, or tran- 
sition through all things, or partible circum- 
scription, or local comprehension, or any thing 



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else of this kind can justly be perceived? I 
think, therefore, that the several participants 
of the divinities are of such a nature, that 
some partake of them etherially, others aerially, 
and others aquatically; which also, the art of 
divine works perceiving, employs adaptations 
and invocations, conformable to such a division. 
And thus much concerning the distribution of 
the more excellent genera into the world. 



CHAP. X. 



After these things, you again subjoin another 
division for yourself, "m which you separate 
the essences of the more excellent genera hy the 
difference of passive and impassive^ But neither 
do I admit this division. For no one of the 
more excellent genera is passive, nor yet im- 
passive in such a way as to be contradistin- 
guished from that which is passive ; nor is 
naturally adapted to receive passions, but libe- 
rated j&x)m them through virtue, or some other 
worthy condition of being. But because they 
are entirely exempt from the contrariety of 
action and passion; and because they are not 
at all adapted to suflFer, and have essentially an 



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immutable firmness, on this account I place 
the impassive and the immutable in all the 
divine genera. 

For consider, if you are willing, the last of 
divine natures, viz. a soul purely liberated from 
bodies. What does such a soul want with the 
generation which is in pleasure, or the restitii- 
tion which is in it to a natural condition, since 
such a soul is above nature, and lives an un- 
begotten life ? Why, also, should it participate 
of the pain which leads to corruption and dis- 
solves the harmony of the body, since it is be- 
yond all body, and the nature which is divided 
about body, and is entirely separate from the 
harmony which descends from the soul into 
the body? But neither is it in want of the 
passions which precede sensation : for neither 
is it detained in body, nor inclosed by it, so as 
to require corporeal organs, in order to appre- 
hend certain other bodies which are external 
to these organs. And, in short, being imparti- 
ble, and abiding in one and the same form, and 
also being essentially incorporeal, and having 
no communication with a generated and pas- 
sive body, it cannot suflFer any thing either 
according to division, or according to a change 
in quality, nor can have any thing which is 
allied to any kind of mutation or passion. 

But neither does the [rational] soul, when it 

E 



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accedes to body, either itself suffer, or the 
reasons which it imparts to the body. For 
these reasons wee forms, and being simple and 
uniform, they receive no perturbation in them- 
selves, and no departure from their proper 
mode of subsistence. That which remains, 
therefore [or the participant of the rational 
soul], becomes the cause of suffering to the 
composite. Cause, however, is not the same 
with its effect. Hence, as soul is the first 
origin of generable and corruptible composite 
animals, but is itself by itself ingenerable and 
incorruptible; thus, also, though the partici- 
pants of the soul suffer, and do not wholly 
[i. e. truly] possess life and existence, but are 
complicated with the indefiniteness and diver- 
sity of matter, yet the soul is itself by itself 
immutable, as being essentially more excellent 
than that which suffers, and not as possessing 
impassivity, in a certain deliberate choice, 
which verges both to the impassive and the 
passive, nor as receiving an adscitious immu- 
tability in the participation of habit or power. 

Since, therefore, we have demonstrated that 
it is impossible for even the last genus of the 
more excellent order of beings, viz. the soul, 
to participate of suffering, how can it be proper 
to adapt this participation to daemons and 
heroes, who are perpetual, and the attendants 



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of the Gods, and who always invariably pre- 
serve the same divine order, and never desert 
it? For we know this indeed, that passion is 
something disorderly, confused, and unstable, 
never having any proper authority of its own, 
but being devoted to that by which it is de- 
tained, and to which it is subservient for the 
purposes of generation. This, therefore, rather 
pertains to some other genus, than to that 
which always exists, and is suspended from 
the Gods, and which, in conjunction with them, 
observes the same order, and accomplishes the 
same period. Hence deemons are impassive, 
and all the more excellent genera which follow 
them [and the Gods] 



CHAP. XI. 



''How therefore,'' you ask, ''are many things 
performed to them in sacred operations, as if they 
were passive f I reply, that this is asserted 
through an ignorance of sacerdotal mysticism. 
For of the things which are perpetually effected 
in sacred rites, some have a certain arcane 
cause, and which is more excellent than reason ; 
others are consecrated from eternity to the 

E 2 



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superior genera, as symbols ; others preserve a 
certain other image, just as nature, which is 
eflfective of invisible reasons, expresses certain 
visible formations ; others are adduced for the 
sake of honour, or have for their end some 
kind of similitude, or familiarity and alliance ; 
and some procure what is useful to us, or in a 
certain respect purify and liberate our human 
passions, or avert some other of those dire 
circumstances which happen to us. It must 
not, however, be on this account granted, that 
a certain portion of sacred institutions is em- 
ployed in the service of Gods or daemons, as if 
they were passive. For an essence which is 
by itself perpetual and incorporeal, is not natu- 
rally adapted to receive a certain mutation 
from bodies. 

Nor, even though we should admit that this 
essence is especially in want of such things, 
will it require the aid of men to a sacred 
worship of this kind; since it is itself filled 
from itself, and from the nature of the world, 
and the perfection which is in generation ; an^, 
if it be lawful so to speak, prior to being in 
want it receives the self-sufficient, through the 
never failing wholeness of the world and its 
own proper plenitude, and because all the 
more excellent genera are full of appropriate 
good. Let this, therefore, be a lenitive for us 



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in common, concerning the worship of the unde- 
filed genera, as being appropriately coadapted 
to the beings that are more excellent than we, 
and because pure things are introduced to 
pure, and impassive things to impassive, na- 
tures. 

But directing our attention to particulars, 
we say that the erection of the phalli is a cer- 
tain sign of prolific power, which, through this, 
is called forth to the generative energy of the 
world. On which account, also, many phalli 
are consecrated in the spring, because then the 
whole world receives from the Gods the power 
which is productive of all generation. But I 
am of opinion, that the obscene language which 
then takes place, aflfords an indication of the 
privation of good about matter, and of the de- 
formity which is in material subjects, prior to 
their being adorned. For these being indigent 
of ornament, by so much the more aspire after 
it, as they in a greater degree despise «ieir own 
deformity. Again therefore, they pursue the 
causes of forms, and of what is beautiful and 
good, recognizing baseness from base language- 
And thus, indeed, the thing itself, viz. turpi- 
tude, is averted, but the knowledge of it is 
rendered manifest through words, and those 
that employ them transfer their desire to that 
which is contrary to baseness. 



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Another reason, also^ of these things may be 
assigned. The powers of the human passions 
that are in us, when they are entirely restrained, 
become more vehement; but when they are 
called forth into energy, gradually and com- 
mensurately, they rejoice in being moderately* 
gratified, are satisfied; and from hence, be- 
coming purified, they are rendered tractable, 
and are vanquished without violence. On this 
account, in comedy and tragedy, by surveying 
the passions of others, we stop our own pas- 
sions, cause them to be more moderate, and 
are purified from them. In sacred ceremonies, 
likewise, by certain spectacles and auditions 
of things base, we become liberated from the 
injury which happens from the works effected 
by them.t Things of this kind, therefore, are 
introduced for the sake of our soul, and of the 
diminution of the evils which adhere to it 

* What is here asserted by lambliehus is perfectly true, 
and confirmed by experience, viz. that the passions, when 
moderately gratified, are vanquished without violence. But 
Gale, not understanding this, says, *' Hoc adeo verum est, 
ac si dixisset, ignem extingues, oleum addendo camino." 
For a moderate gratification of the passions does not re- 
semble the pouring of oil on fire ; since this similitude is 
only applicable to them when they are immoderately in- 
dulged. 

t See my Dissertation on the Eleusinian and Bacchic 
Mysteries. 



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through generation, and of a solution and libe- 
ration from its bonds. On this account, also, 
they are very properly called by Heraclitus 
remedies, as healing things of a dreadful nature, 
and saving souls from the calamities with which 
the realms of generation are replete. 



CHAP. XII. 



You also say, " that invocations are directed to 
the Gods as to beings that are passive, so that 
not only dcemons are passive, hut likewise the 
GodsJ^ This, however, is not the case. For 
the illumination which takes place through in- 
vocations, is spontaneously visible and self- 
perfect; is very remote from all downward 
attraction; proceeds into visibility through di- 
vine energy and perfection, and as much sur- 
passes our voluntary motion as the divine will 
of the good transcends a deliberately chosen 
life. Through this will, therefore, the Gods, 
being benevolent and propitious, impart their 
light to theurgists in unenvying abundance, 
calling upwards their souls to themselves, pro- 
curing them a union with themselves, and 
accustoming them, while they are yet in body, 



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to be separated from bodies, and to be led 
round to their eternal and intelligible prin- 
ciple. 

But it is evident, from the eflFects themselves, 
that what we now say is the salvation of the 
soul. For the soul in contemplating blessed 
spectacles, acquires another life, energizes ac- 
cording to another energy, and is then righliy 
considered as no longer ranking in the order of 
man. Frequently, likewise, abandoning her 
own life, she exchanges it for the most blessed 
energy of the Gods. If, therefore, the ascent 
through invocations imparts to the priests puri- 
fication from passions, a liberation from gene- 
ration, and a union with a divine principle, 
how is it possible to connect with it any thing 
of passion? For an invocation of this kind 
does not draw down the impassive and pure 
Gods, to that which is passive and impure ; 
but, on the contrary, it renders us, who have 
become passive through generation, pure and 
immutable. 

Neither do the invocations which implore 
the Gods to incline to us, conjoin the priests to 
them through passion; but procure for them 
the communion of an indissoluble connexion, 
through the friendship which binds all things 
together. Hence, it does not, as the name 
seems to imply, incline the intellect of the 



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Gods to men; but, according to the decision 
of truth, renders the will of man adapted to 
the participation of the Gods, elevates it to 
them, and coharmonizes the former with the 
latter, through the most appropriate persua- 
sion. On this account also, such names of the 
43rQds as are adapted to sacred concerns, and 
other divine symbols, are able, as they are of 
an anagogic or elevating nature, to connect in- 
vocations with the Gods themselves. 



CHAP. XIII. 



Moreover, " the pacifications of anger " will 
bepome manifest, if we understand what the 
anger of the Gods is.* This, therefore, is not, 
as it appears to be to some, a certain ancienjt 
and inveterate rage, but an abandonment of 
the beneficent care of the Gods, from which we 
turn ourselves away, withdrawing, as it were, 

* In the original^ Kai Siy, icai ** at rtys /irjvtSo^ c^iAxurcis '* 
ea-ovrai <ra<^ts, €av rrjv fvqviv r<av ^<av Karajna^wficv, which 
Gale most erroneously translates as follows : " Sed et ratio 
possit reddi supplicationum, quibus divinam tram procura- 
mus, si recte intelligamus^ quaUs sit deorum ira." 



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from meridian light, hiding ourselves in dark- 
ness, and depriving ourselves of the beneficent 
gift of the Gods. Hence pacification is able 
to convert us to the participation of divinity 
and the providential care of the Gods, from 
which we were divulsed, and to bind together, 
commensurately, participants and the partici- 
pated natures. So far, therefore, is pacification 
from accomplishing its work through passion, 
that it separates us from the passive and 
tumultuous abandonment of the Gods. 

But ^^the oblation of victims" when some 
evil is present in places about the earth, pro- 
cures a remedy for the evil, and secures us 
from the incursion of any mutation or passion. 
Hence, whether a thing of this kind is effected 
through Gods or daemons, it invokes these as 
the expellers of evil, and [our true] saviours, 
and through them exterminates all the injury 
which may accede from the calamities. Those 
powers, also, who avert genesiurgic * and physi- 
cal punishments, do not expel them through 
passions. And if some one should think that 
the suppression of the guardian care of the 
Gods, introduces a certain spontaneous injury, 
in this case the persuasion arising from paci- 

* Fiz. Punishments produced by the realms of genera- 
tion^ or the sublunary region. 



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fication recalls the benevolence of the more 
excellent genera, to a providential attention to 
our affairs, and takes away our privation of 
good, being itself perfectly pure and immu- 
table. 



CHAP. XIV. 



Farther still, with respect to " what are called 
the necessities of the Gods/* the whole truth of 
this is, that necessities are peculiar to, and 
subsist in such a way as accords with the nature 
of, the Gods.* Hence they do not subsist as 
if they were externally derived, or were the 
effect of violence, but after such a manner as 
the good ought to be from necessity, so the 
Gods entirely exist, and are by no means other- 
wise disposed. This necessity, therefore, is 
mingled with beneficent will, and is the friend 
of love ; through an order adapted to the Gods, 
possesses identity and immutability; and be- 
cause it is contained in one boundary, abides 
in this, and never departs from it. Hence, 

* It is well observed by Proclus, " that divine necessity 
concurs with the divine will." Beta avayK-q crvvrpcx^t ry 
^€t^ j8ovXi]orcc» Procl. in Tim. lib. i. 



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through all these particulars, the contrary to 
what you infer takes place. For it happens 
that a divine nature is incapable of being 
allured, is impassive and uncompelled, if there 
are in reality such powers in theurgy, as we 
have demonstrated there are. 



CHAP. XV. 



After this, you pass on to another division 
into contraries, viz. the division of Gods with 
reference to daemons. For you say, " that the 
Gods are pure intellects ; " but you propose this 
opinion as an hypothesis, or you narrate it as 
a dogma adopted by certain persons. And 
you infer, " that dsemons are psychical essences 
participating of intellect '* Neither, therefore, 
am I ignorant that this is the opinion of many 
philosophers ; but to you, I do not think it is 
proper to conceal what appears to me to be 
the truth. For all such opinions are fall of 
confusion; since they wander from daemons 
to souls, which also participate of intellect; 
and from the Gods to an immaterial intellect 
in energy, which the Gods entirely excel by a 
priority of nature. Why, therefore, is it re- 



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quisite to attribute to them these peculiarities, 
which are by no means appropriate? And 
thus much concerning this division, for it would 
be superfluous to make any further mention of 
it. But it is requisite that your doubts re- 
specting this distinction should be properly 
considered, as the discussion of them pertains 
to the sacerdotal province. 

Farther still, having said " that pure intellects 
are infleooible, [i. e. not to he changed or altered] 
and unmingled with sensiblesj^ you doubt, 
•* whether it is requisite to pray to them" But 
I think it is necessary to pray to no others 
than these. For that in us which is divine, in- 
tellectual,* and one, or intelligible, if you are 
willing so to call it, is most clearly excited in 
prayer; and, when excited, vehemently seeks 
that which is similar to itself, and becomes 
copulated to perfection itself. But if it should 
appear to you to be incredible, that an incor- 
poreal nature can be capable of hearing sounds, 
and it should be urged by you, that for this 
purpose the sense of hearing is requisite, that 
it may apprehend what is said by us in prayer ; 
you willingly forget the excellency of primary 
causes, which consists in both knowing and 

* For vorjTov here, it is obviously necessary to read voepov. 



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comprehending- in themselves at once the whole 
of things. The Gods, therefore, do not receive 
prayers in themselves, through any corporeal 
powers or organs, but rather contain in them- 
selves the energies of pious invocations; and 
especially of such as, through sacred ceremo- 
nies, are established in, and united to, the 
Gods. For then, in reality, a divine nature is 
present with itself, and does not communicate 
with the intellectual conceptions in prayer, as 
different from its own. 

" Supplications^ hotoever^" you say, " are too 
foreign to the purity of intellect to be offered to 
the Gods^ But this is by no means the case. 
For on this very account, because we fall short 
of the Gods in power, purity, and every thing 
else, we shall act in the most opportune man- 
ner, by invoking them with the most vehement 
supplications. For the consciousness of our 
own nothingness, when we compare ourselves 
with the Gods, causes us to betake ourselves 
spontaneously to suppliant prayer. But from 
supplication, we are in a short time led to the 
object of supplication, acquire its similitude 
from intimate converse, and gradually obtain 
divine perfection, instead of our own imbecility 
and imperfection. 

If, indeed, it is considered that sacred prayers 



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are sent to men from the Gods themselves, 
that they are certain symbols of the divinities, 
and that they are only known to the Gods, with 
whom, in a certain respect, they possess the 
same power, — ^how can it any longer be justly 
apprehended, that a supplication of this kind is 
sensible, and not divine and intellectual ? Or 
what passion can accede to a thing of this kind, 
the purity of which the most worthy human 
manners cannot easily equal ? 

You say, however, " that the things which 
are offered in supplications are offered as to 
sensitive and psychical natures'^ And, indeed, 
if the offerings consisted of corporeal and com- 
posite powers alone, or of such things as are 
merely subservient to corporeal organs, your 
assertion would be true. But as the offerings 
participate of incorporeal forms, of certain rea- 
sons, and more simple measures, the aptitude 
of them is to be surveyed according to this 
alone. And if a certain alliance, or similitude, 
is present, which is either proximate or re- 
mote, it is sufficient to effect the contact of 
which we are now speaking. For there is not 
any thing which in the smallest degree is adapted 
to the Gods, to which the Gods are not immediately 
present^ and with which they are not conjoined. 
The connexion, therefore, of supplications with 
the Gods, is not as with sensitive or psychical 



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natures, but as with divine forms, and with the 
Gods themselves [as Gods, i. e. as superessen- 
tial hyparxes]. So that we have sufficiently 
spoken in opposition to this division. 



CHAP. XVI. 



The diflFerence which separates " Gods from 
dasmoiis by the corporeal and incorporeal^' is the 
next thing that follows in what you have written ; 
this being much more common than the former 
difference, and yet it is so far from expressing 
the peculiarities of their essence, that it does 
not afford a conjectural knowledge of them, 
nor of any accidents which pertain to them. 
For neither is it possible from these things to 
apprehend whether they are animals or not, 
and whether they are deprived of life, or are 
not at all in want of it. Farther still, neither 
is it easy to conjecture how these names are 
predicated, whether in common, or of many 
different things. For if in common, it is absurd 
that a line and time, God and daemons, fire 
and water, should be under the same incor- 
poreal genus. But if of many things, what 
reason is there when you speak of the incor- 



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poreal, that you should rather manifest by it 
Gods than points ; or when you speak of the 
corporeal, that you should not be thought to 
speak of the earth rather than of dsamons? 
For neither is this very thing defined, whether 
Gods and daemons have bodies, or are carried 
in bodies, as in a vehicle, or use them, or com- 
prehend them, or are alone the same * with body- 
But, perhaps, it is not proper to examine this 
distinction very minutely. For you do not 
propose it as your own decision, but you ex- 
hibit it as the opinion of others. 



CHAP. XVII. 



We will exchange, therefore, this division for the 
doubt which may be adduced by you against 
the present opinion. "J^or," it may be said 
by you, " how^ conformably to what we assert^ 
can the sun and Tnoon^ and the visible natures in 
the heavenSy be GodSy if the Gods are alone in- 
corporeal ? " To this we reply, that the celes- 
tial divinities are not comprehended by bodies, 
but contain bodies in their divine lives and 

♦ For TovTo here, it is necessary to read ravro* 

P 



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energies; that they are not themselves con- 
verted to body, but they have a body which 
is converted to its divine cause ; and that body 
does not impede their intellectual and incor- 
poreal perfection, nor occasion them any mo- 
lestation by its intervention. Hence it does 
not require an abundant attention, but follows 
the divinities spontaneously, and after a certain 
manner, self-motively, not being in want of 
manual direction ; but, through an anagogic 
tendency, being itself uniformly coelevated by 
itself, to the one of the Gods. 

It may also, if requisite, be said that a celes- 
tial body is most allied to the incorporeal 
essence of the Gods. For as the latter is one, 
so the former is simple ; as the latter is imparti- 
ble, so the former is indivisible ; * and as that is 
immutable, so this is unchanged in quality. 
If, likewise, it is admitted that the energies of 
the Gods are uniform, a celestial body also, 
has one circulation. To which may be added, 
that it imitates the sameness of the Gods, by a 
perpetual motion, which is invariably the same, 
and which subsists according to one reason 

* For as a celestial body consists of light so pure and 
simple^ that, compared with a terrestrial body, it may be said 
to be immaterial ; hence, like the light of the sun, it cannot 
be divided, or in other words, one part of it cannot be sepa- 
rated from another. 



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and one order. It also imitates a divine life, 
by the life which is connascent with etherial 
bodies. Hence, this celestial body does not 
consist of things contrary and different, as is 
the case with onr body; nor does the soul of 
the celestial Gods coalesce with the body into 
one animal from two things; but the celestial 
animals of the Gods are. entirely similar and 
counited, and are throughout wholes, uniform, 
and incomposite. For things of a more excel- 
lent nature are always transcendent in them, 
after the same manner; and things of an in- 
ferior nature are suspended from the dominion 
of such as are prior, yet so as never to draw 
down this dominion to tJiemselves. But all 
these are congregated into one coarrtngement 
and perfection; and, after a certain manner, 
all things in the celestial Gods are incorporeal, 
and wholly Gods; because the divine form 
which is in them predominates, and inserts 
every where throughout one total essence. 
Thus, therefore, the visible celestials are all of 
them Gods, and after a certain manner incor- 
poreal. 



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CHAP. XVIII. 

Your next inquiry doubts, " how some of the 
Gods are beneficent^ hut others mcdeficJ* This 
opinion, therefore, is assumed from the pre- 
dictors of nativities. It is, however, entirely 
remote from the truth. For all the Gods are 
good, and invariably the causes of good; and 
all of them are uniformly convolved to one 
good, according to the beautifal and good alone. 
The bodies, likewise, which are subject to 
them possess immense powers ; some of which 
are firmly established in the divine bodies them- 
selves, but others proceed from them into the 
nature of the world, and into the world itself, 
descending in an orderly manner through the 
whole of generation, and extending without 
impediment as far as to things which have a 
partial subsistence. 

With respect to the powers, therefore, which 
remain in the heavens in the divine bodies 
themselves, there can be no doubt that all of 
them are similar. Hence, it remains that we 
should discuss those powers which are thence 
transmitted to us, and are mingled with gene- 
ration. These, therefore, descend with invaria- 
ble sameness for the salvation of the universe, 



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and connectedly contain the whole of genera- 
tion after the same manner. They are like- 
wise impassive and immntable, though they 
proceed into that which is mutable and passive. 
For generation being multiform, and consisting 
of diflferent things, receives the one of the 
Gods, and that in them which is without differ- 
ence, with hostility and partibility, conformably 
to its own contrariety and division. It also 
receives that which is impassive, passively; 
and, in short, participates of them according to 
its own proper nature, and not according to 
their power. As, therefore, that which is 
generated [or has a subsistence in becoming 
to be,] participates of being generatively, and 
body participates of the incorporeal, corpo- 
really; thus, also, the physical and material 
substances which are in generation, participate 
of the immaterial and etherial bodies, which 
are above nature and generation, in a confused 
and disorderly manner. Hence they are ab- 
surd who attribute colour, figure, and contact 
to intelUgible forms, because the participants 
of them are things of this kind; as likewise 
are those who ascribe depravity to the celes- 
tial bodies, because their participants some- 
times produce evils. For the participation 
from the first could not be a thing of this 
kind» unless the recipient had some mutation. 



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But if that which is participated is received as 
in another and different thing, this other thing 
in terrene natures is evil and disorderly. The 
participation, therefcM-e, becomes the cause of 
the abundant difference in secondary natures, 
and also the commixture of material sub- 
stances with immaterial effluxions; and be- 
sides these, another cause is this, that what is 
imparted in one way, is received in another by 
terrestrial substances. Thus, for instance, the 
efflux of Saturn is constipative, but that of 
Mars is motive ; but the passive genesiurgic 
receptacle in material substances receives the 
former according to congelation and refrigera- 
tion, but the latter according to an inflam- 
mation which transcends mediocrity. Do not, 
therefore, the corruption and privation of sym- 
metry arise from an aberration which is effec- 
tive of difference, and which is material and 
passive ? Hence the imbecility of material and 
terrene places, not being able to receive the 
genuine power and most pure life of the ethe- 
rial natures, transfers its own passion to first 
causes. Just as if some one having a diseased 
body, and not being able to bear the vivific 
heat of the sun, should falsely dare to say, in 
consequence of looking to his own maladies, 
that the sun is not useful to health or life. 
A certain thing of this kind also may take 



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place in the harmony and crasis of the universe : 
for the same things may be the salvation of the 
whole, through the perfection of the things 
inherent and the recipients ; but may be noxious 
to the parts, through their partible privation 
of symmetry. In the motion, therefore, of the 
universe, all the circulations preserve the whole 
world invariably the same; but some one of 
the parts is frequently injured by another part, 
which we see is sometimes the case in a 
dance. 

Again, therefore, corruptibility and muta- 
bility are passions connascent with partial na- 
tures. But it is not proper to ascribe these 
to wholes and first causes, either as if they 
existed in them, or as if they proceeded to 
terrestrial substances from them. Hence, 
through these things it is demonstrated, that 
neither the celestial Gods, nor their gifts, are 
eflFective of evil. 



CHAP. XIX. 



In the next place, therefore, we shall answer 
your question, *'What it is which conjoins the 
Gods that have a body in the heavens with the 
incorporeal Gods" What this is, therefore, is 
evident from what has been before said. For 



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if these Gods, as incorporeal, intelligible, and 
united, ride in the celestial spheres, they have 
their principles in the intelligible world, and 
intellectually perceiving the divine forms of 
themselves, they govern all heaven according 
to one infinite energy. And if they are present 
with the heavens in a separate manner, and 
lead the perpetual circulations of them by their 
will alone, they are themselves unmingled with 
a sensible nature, and exist together with the 
intelligible Gods. 

It will be better, however, to answer you 
more particularly, as follows : I say, therefore, 
that the visible statues of the Gods originate 
from divine intelligible paradigms, and are 
generated about them. But being thus ;; gene- 
rated, they are entirely established in them, 
and being also extended to,* they possess an 
image which derives its completion from them. 
These images likewise fabricate another order ; 
sublunary natures are in continuity with them, 
according to one union ; and the divine in- 
tellectual forms, which are present with the 
visible bodies of the Gods, exist prior to them 
in a separate manner. But the unmingled and 
supercelestial intelligible paradigms of them, 
abide by themselves in unity, and are at once 

* For wpos avrqv in this place, I read wf>os avra. 



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all things, according to the eternal transcen^ 
dency of themselves. 

There is, therefore, one common indivisible 
bond of them according to intellectual energies ; 
and there is also this bond according to the 
common participations of forms, since there is 
nothing which intercepts these, nor any thing 
which comes between them. For indeed, an 
immaterial and incorporeal essence itself, being 
neither separated by places, nor by subjects, 
nor defined by the divisible circumscriptions 
of parts, immediately concurs, and is connas- 
cent with sameness. The progression also, 
firom, and the regression of all things to, the 
one^ and the entire domination of the one, con- 
gregates the communion of the mundane Gods 
with the Gods that preexist in the intelligible 
world. 

Farther still, the intellectual conversion of 
secondary to primary natures, and the gift of 
the same essence and power imparted by the 
primary to the secondary Gods, connects the 
synod of them in indissoluble union. For 
in things of different essences, such as soul 
and body, and also in those of a dissimilar 
species, such as material forms, and those 
which are in any other way separated from 
each other, the connascent adventitious union 
is derived from supernal causes, and is lost in 



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certain definite periods of time. But by how 
much the higher we ascend, and elevate our- 
selves to the sameness both in form and 
essence, of first natures, and proceed from 
parts to wholes, by so much the more shall 
we discover the union which has an eternal 
existence, and survey the essence, which has 
a precedaneous and more principal subsist- 
ence, and possesses about, and in itself, differ- 
ence and multitude,* 

Since, however, the order of all the Gods is 
profoundly united, and the first and second 
genera of them, and all the multitude which is 
spontaneously produced about them, are con- 
subsistent in unity, and also every thing which 
is in them is one, — hence the beginning, mid- 
dles, and ends in them are consubsistent ac- 
cording to the one itself; so that in these, it is 
not proper to inquire, whence the one accedes 
td all of them. For the very existence in 
them, whatever it may be, is this one t of their 

* The nature of the one, as it is all-receptive, and cdl-pro^ 
ducUve (vav^x'l^ '^^^ vavTOifivr)^) exhibits in itself a certain 
representation and indication of multitude ; for it is all things 
prior to all. 

t For the Gods are essentialized in the one; or^ as 
Damascius observes, speaking Chaldaically, in the paternal 
peculiarity. For in every God there is father, power, and 
inteUect ; father bdng the same as hypands imd the one. 



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nature. And secondary genera, indeed, remain 
with invariable sameness in the one of such as 
are primary; but the primary impart from 
themselves union to the secondary genera, 
and all of them possess in each other the com- 
munion of an indissoluble connexion. 

From this cause, therefore, the perfectly in- 
corporeal Gods are united to the sensible Gods 
that have bodies. For the visible Gods also 
are external to bodies, and on this account 
are in the intelligible world ; and the intelligi- 
ble Gods, through their infinite union, compre- 
hend in themselves the visible Gods ; and both 
are established according to a common union 
and one energy. In a similar manner, also, 
this is the illustrious prerogative of the cause 
and orderly distribution of the Gods, on which 
account the same union of all the divinities 
extends from on high, as far as to the end of 
the divine order. But if this deserves to be 
doubted, the contrary would be wonderful, 
viz. that there should not be this union of 
the visible and intelligible Gods. And thus 
much concerning the contact with, and esta- 
blishment of, the sensible in the intelligible 
Gods. 



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CHAP. XX. 

After this, you again reisiime the same inqui- 
ries, of which what has been already said may 
be considered as a sufficient solution. Since, 
however, it is necessary, according to the pro- 
verb, frequently to speak of and consider things 
that are beautiful, neither shall we pass over 
these particulars, as if they had been now 
sufficiently answered, but by repeatedly dis- 
cussing them we may, perhaps, obtain from all 
of them a certain perfect and great scientific 
good. For you doubt ''what it is which dis- 
tinguishes dcBmons from the visible and invisible 
Godsy since the visible are conjoined tvith the in- 
visible divinities.'* But I, beginning from this 
as the first thing, shall demonstrate what it is 
in which they difier. For, because the visible 
are united to the intelligible Gods, and have 
the same idea with them, but daemons are far 
distant from them, according to essence, and 
scarcely adumbrate them through similitude, 
on this account they are separated from the 
visible Gods; and they difier from the invisi- 
ble Gods, according to the difierence itself of 
the invisible.* For daemons, indeed, are in- 

* Fiz, According to the diflTerence which there is between 
the invisibility of Gods and the invisibility of demons. 



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visible, and by no means to be apprehended 
by sense; but the Gods transcend rational 
knowledge and material intelligence. And, 
because they are unknown and unapparent to 
these, they are thus denominated ; but are said 
to be invisible in a way very different from that 
in which this is asserted of daemons. What, 
therefore, have the invisible Gods, so far as 
they are invisible, more excellent than the 
visible Gods? Nothing. For that which is 
divine, wherever it may be, and whatever allot- 
ment it may possess, has the same power and 
dominion over all the natures that are arranged 
under it. Moreover, though the invisible Gods 
should become visible, yet they rule over in- 
visible daemons. For neither the place, which 
is the recipient of divinity, nor a certain part 
of the world, produces any mutation in the 
dominion of the Gods. But the whole essence 
of the Gods remains everywhere the same, in- 
divisible and immutable, which all subordinate 
beings similarly venerate, in the order assigned 
them by nature. 

By the assistance also of this reasoning, we 
may discover another difference between Gods 
and daemons. For both the visible and invisi- 
ble Gods, indeed, comprehend in themselves 
the whole government of whatever is contained 



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in all heaven and the world, and in the total 
invisible powers in the universe. But those 
powers that are allotted a dsemoniacal prefec- 
ture, distributing certain divisible portions of 
the world, govern these, and have themselves 
a partible form of essence and power. They 
are, likewise, in a certain respect, connascent 
with, and inseparable from, the subjects of their 
government. But the Gods, though they may 
ride in bodies, are entirely separated from them. 
The providential attention, therefore, to bodies, 
produces no diminution in those to whom body 
is subservient : for it is connectedly contained 
by a more excellent nature, is converted to it, 
and is not the cause of any impediment to it. 
But the adhering to a genesiurgic nature, and 
the being divided about it, necessarily give to 
dsemons a more subordinate condition. In 
short, that which is divine is of a ruling nature, 
and presides over the different orders of be- 
ings; but that which is daemoniacal is of a 
ministrant nature, and receives whatever the 
Gods may announce, promptly employing ma- 
nual operation, as it were, in things which the 
Gods intellectually p|erceive, wish, and com- 
mand. The Gods, therefore, are liberated 
from the powers which verge to generation; 
but daemons are not entirely purified from 



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these. And thus much concerning this dis- 
tinction; and we trust, that from the former 
and the present exposition, the difference be- 
tween Gods and daemons will become more 
known. 



CHAP. XXI. 

The division, however, of the passive from the 
impassive^ which you adopt, may perhaps be 
rejected by some one, as not adapted to either 
of the more excellent genera, through the 
causes which we have before enumerated ; and 
it also deserves to be subverted, because it is 
inferred that these genera are passive, from 
what is performed in religious ceremonies. 
For what sacred institution, what religious 
cultivation, which is conformable to sacerdotal 
laws, is effected through passion, or produces a 
certain completion of passions? Is not each 
of these legislatively ordained from the first, 
conformably to the sacred laws of the Gods, 
and intellectually? Each also imitates both 
the intelligible and celestial order of the Gods ; 
and contains the eternal measures of beings, 
and those admirable signatures which are sent 
hither from the Demiurgus and father of 
wholes, by which things of an ineffable nature 



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are unfolded into light through arcane symbols, 
things formless are vanquished by forms, things 
more excellent than every image are expressed 
through images, and all things are accom- 
plished through a divine cause alone, which is 
in so great a degree separated from passions, 
that reason is not able to come into contact 
with it. 

This, therefore, is nearly the cause of our 
aberration to a multitude of conceptions. For 
men being in reality unable to apprehend the 
reasons of sacred institutions, but conceiving 
that they are able, are wholly hurried away 
by their own human passions, and form a con- 
jecture of divine concerns from things per- 
taining to themselves. In so doing, however, 
they err in a twofold respect; because they 
fall from divine natures; and because, being 
frustrated of these, they draw them down to 
human passions. But it is requisite not to 
apprehend after the same manner, things which 
are performed both to Gods and men, such as 
genuflexions, adorations, gifts, and first fruits, 
but to establish the one apart from the other, 
conformably to the difference between things 
more and things less honourable ; and to reve- 
rence the former, indeed, as divine, but to 
despise the latter as human, and as performed 
to men. It is proper, likewise, to consider, 



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that the latter produce passions, both in the 
performer and those to whom they are per- 
formed; for they are human and corporeal- 
formed ; but to honour the energy of the former 
in a very high degree, as being performed 
through immutable admiration, and a venera- 
ble condition of mind, because they are referred 
to the Gods. 



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SECTION IL 



CHAP. I. 

It is also necessary to demonstrate to you, in 
what daemons, heroes, and souls differ from 
each other, and whether this difference is 
according to essence, or according to power, 
or according to energy. I say, therefore, that 
daemons are produced according to the genera- 
tive and demiurgic powers of the Gods, in the 
most remote termination of progression, and 
ultimate distribution into parts. But heroes 
are produced according to the reasons [or 
effective principles] of life in divine natures; 
and from these, the first and perfect measures 
of souls receive their termination and distribu- 
tion into parts. 

Since, however, the nature of daemons and 
heroes is thus generated from different causes, 
it is also necessary that the essence of the one 
should be different from that of the other. 
Hence, the essence of daemons is effective, and 
perfective of mundane natures, and gives com- 
pletion to the superintendence of generated in- 



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^yiduals. But the essence of heroes is vital 
and rational, and is the leader of souls. And^ 
with respect to the powers of each, those of 
daemons must be defined to be prolific, in- 
spective^ of nature, and of the bond by which 
souls are united to bodies. But it is requisite 
to attribute to heroes vivific powers, which are 
the leaders of men, and are liberated from 
generation. 



CHAP. II. 



It follows, therefore, that in the next place we 
should define the energies of them. And those of 
daemons, indeed, must be surveyed as occupied 
about the world, and more widely extended in 
their effects; but those of heroes as less ex- 
tended, and as converted to the order of souls. 
Hence, these being thus distinguished, soul 
succeeds, which proceeds as far as to the end 
of the divine orders ; and, being allotted from 
these two genera certain portions of powers, is 
redundant with partible additions, and other 
prerogatives derived from itself. It also pro- 
duces at different times different forms and 
reasons and manners, which originate from 
different sources; and, according to each part 
of the world, employs various lives and ideas ; 

g2 



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becoming connascent with, and likewise reced- 
ing from, whatever natures it pleases ; being 
assimilated to all things, and at the same time, 
through difference, being separated from them ; 
drawing forth reasons allied to real beings and 
generated natures ; and connecting itself with 
the Gods, according to other harmonies of 
essences and powers, than those by which 
deemons and heroes are united to the divini- 
ties. It likewise possesses the eternity of a 
similar life and energy in a less degree than 
daemons and heroes; yet, through the benefi- 
cent will of the Gods, and the illumination im- 
parted by them, it frequently proceeds higher, 
and is elevated to a greater, i. e. to the angelic 
order ; when it no longer remains in the boun- 
daries of soul, but the whole of it is perfected 
into an angelic soul and an undefiled life. 
Hence, also, soul appears to comprehend in 
itself all-various essences and reasons, and forms 
or species of every kind. If, however, it b^ 
requisite to speak the truth, soul is always de- 
fined according to one certain thing, but adapt- 
ing itself to precedaneous causes, it is at diffe- 
rent times conjoined to different causes. 

So great, therefore, being the difference be- 
tween the energies of deemons, heroes, and 
souls throughout, it is no longer proper to 
doubt, what it is which separates them from 



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each other; but they are to be distinguished 
by the peculiar nature of each. And so far as 
they are able to form one conjunction, so far 
the communion of them must be surveyed. 
For thus it will be possible truly to compre- 
hend and define separately the conception 
which ought to be formed of them. 



CHAP. III. 



Let us, however, now proceed to the appear- 
ances of the Gods and their perpetual attend- 
ants, and show what the difference is in their 
appearance. For you inquire, " hy what indi- 
cation the presence of a God, or an angel^ or an 
archangel^ or a dcBmon, or a certain archon [i. e. 
ruler'], or a soul, may he known.*' In one word, 
therefore, I conclude that their appearances 
accord with their essences, powers, and ener- 
gies. For such as they are, such also do they 
appear to those that invoke them, and they 
exhibit energies and ideas consentaneous to 
themselves, and proper indications of them- 
selves. But that we may descend to particu- 
lars, the phasmata, or luminous appearances, of 
the Gods are uniform; those of daemons are 
various ; those of angels are more simple than 
those of daemons, but are subordinate to those 



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of the Gods ; those of archangels approximate 
in a greater degree to divine causes ; but those 
of archons, if these powers appear to you to be 
the cosmocrators,* who govern the sublunary 
element, will be more various, but adorned 
in order ; but if they are the powers that pre- 
side over matter, they will indeed be more 
various, and more imperfect, than those of the 
archons [properly so called] ; and those of souls 
will appear to be all- various. And the phas- 
mata, indeed, of the Gods will be seen shining 
with salutary light; those of archangels will 
be terrible, and at the same time mild; those 
of angels will be more mild ; those of daemons 
will be dreadful ; those of heroes (which you . 
have omitted in your inquiry, but to which we 
shall give an answer for the sake of truth) are 
milder than those of deemons; but those of 
archons, if their dominion pertains to the world, 
produce astonishment, but if they are material, 
they are noxious and painful to the spectators ; 
and those of souls are similar to the heroic 
phasmata, except that they are inferior to 
them. 

Again, therefore, the phasmata of the Gods 
are entirely immutable, according to magnitude, 

* The. cosmocrators, or governors of the world, are the 
planets. See the fourth book of my translation of Proclus 
on the Timseus of Plato. 



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morphe,* and figure, and according to all things 
pertaining to them; those of archangels ap- 
proximate to those of the Gods, but fall short 
of the sameness of them ; those of angels are 
subordinate to these, but are immutable ; and 
those of daemons are at different times seen in 
a different form, and appear at one time great, 
but at another small, yet are still recognized to 
be the phasmata of daemons. Moreover, those 
of such archons as are leaders are immutable ; 
but those of such as are material are multi- 
formly changed ; those of heroes are similar 
to those of daemons; and those of souls 
imitate in no small degree the daemoniacal 
mutation. Farther still, order and quiet per- 
tain to the Gods ; but with archangels, there is 
an efficacy of order and quiet. With angels, 
the adorned and the tranquil are present, but 
not unattended with motion. Perturbation and 
disorder follow the daemoniacal phasmata ; but 
spectacles attend the archons, conformable to 
each of the particulars which we have already 
mentioned; the material archons, indeed, be- 
ing borne along tumultuously ; but those of a 
leading characteristic, presenting themselves to 
the view, firmly established in themselves. The 
phasmata of heroes are subject to motion and 
mutation ; but those of souls resemble, indeed, 

* Morphe pertains to the colour, figure, and magnitude of 
superficies. 



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the heroic, but at the same time are less than 
these. In addition also to these peculiarities, 
divine beauty, indeed, shines with an immense 
splendour as it were, fixes the spectators in 
astonishment, imparts a divine joy, presents 
itself to the view with ineflEable symmetry, anjd 
is exempt from all other species of pulchritude. 
But the blessed spectacles of archangels have 
indeed themselves the greatest beauty, yet are 
not so ineffable and admirable as those of the 
Gods. Those of angels divide, in a partible 
manner, the beauty which they receive from 
archangels. But the deemoniacal and heroical 
self-visive spirits, have both of them beauty in 
definite forms, yet the former is adorned in 
reasons which define the essence, and the latter 
exhibits fortitude. The phasmata of archons 
may be divided in a twofold respect. For some 
of them exhibit a beauty which is spontaneous, 
and of a ruling characteristic; but others, an 
elegance of form which is fictitious and reno- 
vated. And the phasmata of souls are, indeed, 
adorned in definite reasons, but these reasons 
are more divided than those in heroes, are 
partibly circumscribed, and are vanquished by 
one form. If, however, it be requisite to de- 
fine all of them in common, I say that each 
participates of beauty according to its arrange- 
ment, the peculiar nature which it possesses, 
and its allotment. 



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CHAP. IV. 

Proceeding, therefore, to other peculiarities 
of them, we say, that with the Gods, indeed, 
there is acuteness and rapidity in the energies, 
which shine forth with greater celerity than 
those of intellect itself, though in themselves 
they are immoveable and stable. With arch- 
angels, the celerities are, in a certain respect, 
mingled with efficacious energies. Those of 
angels partake of a certain motion, and do not, 
similarly with archangels, possess a power 
which is effective by speaking. The operations 
of daemons appear to be more rapid than they 
are in reality. In the motions of the heroic 
phasmata, a certain magnificence presents it- 
self to the view ; but in accomplishing what 
they wish to effect, their energies are not so 
rapid as those of deemons. In the phasmata of 
archons, the first energies appear to be most 
excellent and authoritative; but the second 
have a more abundant representation, yet in 
actions fall short of the end. And the phas- 
mata of souls are seen to be more moveable, 
yet are more imbecile, than those of heroes. 

In addition to these things also, the magni- 
tude of the epiphanies [or manifestations] in 
the Gods, indeed, is so great as sometimes to 



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conceal all heaven, the sun and the moon ; and 
the earth itself, as the Gods descend, is no 
longer able to stand still. When archangels 
appear, certain parts of the world are moved, 
and a divided forerunning light precedes them. 
But they exhibit a magnitude of light com- 
mensurate to the magnitude of their domina- 
tion. The angelic light is less than the arch- 
angelic, and more divided, but in daemons it is 
still more divided, and the magnitude of the 
manifestation is not always equal in them. 
The manifestation of heroes is still less than 
that of daemons, but exhibits more of an ele- 
vated condition. Again, the manifestation of 
such archons as preside over mundane forms, 
presents itself to the view as above measure 
great ; but such of them as are distributed 
about matter, exhibit in their manifestations an 
abundance of pride and arrogance. Those of 
souls are not all of them seen to be equal, but 
appear to be less than those of heroes. And, 
in short, the magnitude of the manifestation is 
appropriately present in each of these, accord- 
ing to the magnitude of their powers, and the 
amplitude of the empire through which they 
extend themselves, and in which they exercise 
their authority. 

After these things, therefore, we shall define 
the reasons of the self-apparent statues [or 



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images]. Hence, in the forms of the Gods 
which are seen by the eyes, the most clear 
spectacles of truth itself are perceived, which 
are also accurately splendid, and shine forth 
with an evolved light. The images of arch- 
angels present themselves to the view true and 
perfect ; but those of angels preserve, indeed, 
the same form, but fail in plenitude of indica* 
tion. The images of deemons are obscure; 
and those of heroes are seen to be still inferior 
to these. With respect, also, to archons, the 
images of such as are mundane, are clear ; but 
of such as are material, obscure. Both; how- 
ever, are seen to be of an authoritative nature. 
And the images of souls appear to be of a 
shadowy form. 

In a similar manner, likewise, we must de- 
termine concerning the light of these powers. 
For the images of the Gods, indeed, are replete 
with a fulgid light. Those of archangels are 
full of supernatural light. Those of angels are 
luminous ; but daemons present themselves to 
the view with a turbid fire. The light of 
heroes is mingled with many things. And, with 
respect to archons, the light of those that have 
the government of the world is more pure; 
but of those that preside over matter, exhibits 
itself mingled from things of a dissimilar and 
contrary nature. And the light of souls mani- 



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fests itself to be partibly filled with many of the 
mixtures which exist in generation. 

Conformably, also, to what has been said, the 
fire of the Gods, indeed, shines forth with an 
indivisible and ineffable light, and fills all the 
profundities of the world, in an empyrean,* 
but not in a mundane, manner. But the fire of 
archangels is impartible indeed, but is seen to 
possess about itself an abundant multitude, 
either preceding or following after itself. The 
fire of angels is divided, except that it exhibits 
itself in the most perfect ideas. That of daemons 
is still more shortly circumscribed by a distri- 
bution into parts, is effable, and does not 
astonish the sight of those that have seen more 
excellent natures. The fire of heroes has, after 
a certain manner, the same things as that of 
daemons, but at the same time falls short of the 
most accurate similitude to it. Moreover, vidth 
respect to archons, the fire of those that are of 
a more elevated order, is more pellucid; but 
of those that are material, is more dark. And 
the fire of souls is seen to be much divided 
and multiform, and is comingled from many of 
the natures that are in the world. Again, the 
fire of the Gods appears to be entirely stable. 

* For TTupitos in this place, I read efMrvpKos. For the em- 
pyrean world, according to the Chaldeans, is above the 
material worlds, and emits a supermundane fire or light 



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That of archangels is tranquil; but that of 
angels is stably moved. The fire of daemons 
is unstable ; but that of heroes is, for the most 
part, rapidly moved. The fire of those archons 
that are of the first rank is tranquil; but of 
those that are of the last order is tumultuous. 
And the fire of souls is transmuted in a multi- 
tude of motions. 



CHAP. V. 



Moreover, that which purifies souls is perfect 
in the Gods ; but in archangels it is anagogic. 
Angels alone dissolve the bond of generation. 
Daemons draw souls down into nature; but 
heroes lead them to a providential attention 
to sensible works. Archons either deliver to 
them the government of mundane concerns, or 
the inspection of material natures. And souls, 
when they become apparent, tend in a certain 
respect to generation. 

Farther still, consider this, also, that you 
should attribute everything which is pure and 
stable in the visible image to the more excellent 
genera. Hence, you should ascribe to the 
Gods that which in the image is transcendently 
splendid, and which is firmly established in 
itself. That which is splendid, but is estab- 



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lished as in another thing, you should give to 
archangels ; but that which remains in anotl^^er 
to angels. To all these, therefore, you should 
oppose, that which is rashly borne along, is 
unestabhshed, and filled with foreign natures, 
the whole of which is adapted to inferior orders. 

These, also, may now be divided according 
to the diflference of commixture. For mun- 
dane vapours are mingled with daemons, and 
are unstably borne along, contrary to the mo- 
tion of the world. Genesiurgic compositions 
of pneumatic substances are mingled with he- 
roes, about which substances, also, they are 
moved. The archons of the world remain in- 
variably the same, exhibiting the mundane na- 
ture which they possess. But the archons of 
matter are full of material substances. And 
SQuls are filled with an abundance of stains and 
foreign spirits, together with which, when they 
become visible, each of these genera presents 
itself to the view. 

The following, also, will be no small indica- 
tions to you [of the difference of these powers]. 
With the Gods matter is immediately con- 
sumed. With archangels it is consumed in a 
short time. With angels there is a solution of, 
and elevation from, matter. By daemons matter 
is elegantly adorned. With heroes there is a 
coadaptation to it, in appropriate measures, 



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JEind a skilful proyidential attention to it. And 
with respect to archons, those that are the 
governors of the world are present with matter 
in a transcendent manner, and in this way un- 
fold themselves into light. But those that are 
material, exhibit themselves as entirely replete 
with matter. With respect to souls, also, those 
that are pure, present themselves to the view 
out of matter, but those of a contrary descrip- 
tion are seen surrounded with it. 



CHAP. VI. 



MoREOVEE, the gifts arising from the manifes- 
tations are not all of them equal, nor have the 
same fruits. But the presence* of the Gods, 
indeed, imparts to us health of body, virtue of 
soul, purity of intellect, and in one word ele*- 
vates every thing in us to its proper principle. 
And that, indeed, in us which is cold and de- 
structive it annihilates; that which is hot it 
increases, and renders more powerful and pre- 
dominant ; and causes all things to accord 
with soul and intellect. It also emits a light, 
accompanied with intelligible harmony, and 

* For Trepiovcna here, it is necessary to read Tapova-ia. 



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exhibits that which is not body as body to the 
eyes of the soul, through those of the body. 
The presence of archangels imparts likewise 
the same things, except that it does not impart 
them always, nor in all things, nor does it be- 
stow goods which are sufficient, perfect, and 
incapable of being taken away; nor is their 
appearance accompanied with a light equal to 
that of the Gods. The presence of angels im- 
parts divisibly still more partible goods, and 
the energy through which it becomes visible 
falls very short of comprehending in itself a 
perfect light. That of daemons renders the 
body, indeed, heavy, afflicts with diseases, 
draws down the soul to nature, does not depart 
from bodies, and the sense allied to bodies, and 
detains about this terrestrial place those who 
are hastening to divine fire, and does not libe- 
rate from the bonds of Fate. The presence of 
heroes is in other respects similar to that of 
daemons, but is attended with this peculiarity, 
that it excites to certain generous and great 
undertakings. The appearance which is visible 
by itself, of the mundane archons, imparts 
mundane goods, and every thing pertaining to 
human life ; but that of the material archons 
extends material benefits, and such works as 
are terrestrial. Moreover, the vision of souls 
that are undefiled, and established in the order 



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of angels, is anagogic, and the saviour of the soul, 
is accompanied with sacred hope, and imparts 
those goods which sacred hope vindicates to 
itselt But the vision of other souls draws down 
to generation, corrupts the fruits of [sacred] 
hope, and fills the spectators with passions 
which fix them to body. 



CHAP. VII. 



Moreover, in the manifestations there is an 
indication of the order which the powers that 
are seen possess. For the Gods are surrounded 
by either Gods or angels ; but archangels have 
angels either preceding or coarranged with 
them, or following them behind, or are accom- 
panied by a certain other multitude of angels, 
who attend on them as guards. Angels ex- 
hibit, together with themselves, the peculiar 
works of the order to which they belong. 
Good daemons permit us to survey, in con- 
junction with themselves, their own works, and 
the benefits which they impart ; but avenging 
daemons exhibit the species of punishments 
[which they inflict]; and such other daemons 
as are depraved are surrounded by certain nox- 

H 



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ious, blood-devouring, and fierce wild beasts.* 
Archons [of the first rank] exhibit, together 
with themselves, certain portions of the world ; 
but other archons attract to themselves the in- 
ordination and confusion of matter. With re- 
spect to soul, if it ranks as a whole, and does 
not belong to any particular species, it presents 
to the view a formless fire, extended through 
the whole world, which is indicative of the 
total, one, indivisible, and formless soul of the 
universe ; but a purified soul exhibits a fiery 
form, and a pure and unmingled fire. Then, 
also, the most inward light of it is seen, and 
an undefiled and stable form, and it most 
willingly and joyfully follows its elevating 
leader, and unfolds, by its works, its own ap- 
propriate order. But the soul which verges 
downward draws along with it the signs of 
bonds and punishments, is heavy with material 
spirits, is detained by the anomalous tumults of 
matter, and exhibits before itself, genesiurgic 
presiding daemons. And, in short, all these 
genera exhibit their proper orders ; viz. the 
aerial genera exhibit aerial fire ; the terrestrial 

* These are terrestrial daemons, to whom the Chaldean 
oracle alludes^ which says, " The wild beasts of the earth 
shaU inhabit thy vessel/' t. e, as Psellus explains it, the 
eomposite temperature of the soul. 



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a terrestrial and blacker fire ; and the celestial 
a more splendid fire. But in these three boun- 
daries all the genera are distributed according 
to a triple order of beginning, middle, and end. 
And the Gods, indeed, exhibit the supreme 
and most pure causes of this triple order. But 
the genera of angels depend on those of arch- 
angels. The genera of damons appear to be 
subservient to those of angels ; and in a similar 
manner to these, the genera of heroes are 
ministrant. They are not, however, subservient 
to angels in the same way as daemons. Again, 
the genera of archons, whether they preside 
over the world or over matter, exhibit the 
order which is adapted to them. But all the 
genera of souls present themselves to the view 
as the last of more excellent natures. Hence, 
also, they exhibit places in conjunction with 
themselves; souls of the first rank primary, 
but those of the second rank secondary, places, 
and the rest conformably to their arrangement, 
in each of these three genera. 



CHAP. VIII. 



MoEEOVER, with respect to the tenuity and 
subtilty of light, the Gods extend a light so 
subtle that corporeal eyes cannot sustain it, 

h2 



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but are affected in the same manner as fishes, 
when they are drawn upward from turbid and 
thick water into attenuated and diaphanous 
air. For men who survey divine fire are not 
able to breathe, through the subtilty of it, but 
become languid as soon as they perceive it, 
and are deprived of the use of their connascent 
spirit. Archangels, also, emit a light which is 
intolerable to respiration, yet their splendour is 
not equally pure with that of the Gods, nor 
similarly overpowering. The presence of angels 
renders the temperature of the air tolerable, so 
that theurgists are capable of being united to 
it. But when daemons are present, the whole 
air is not at all affected ; nor does the air, which 
surrounds them, become more attenuated ; nor 
does a light precede them, in which, being pre- 
viously received and preoccupied by the air, 
they unfold the form of themselves ; nor are 
they surrounded by a certain splendour, which 
diffuses its light everywhere. When heroes 
appear, certain parts of the earth are moved, 
and sounds are heard around them ; but, in 
short, the air does not become more attenuated, 
nor incommensurate to theurgists, so as to ren- 
der them unable to receive it. But when 
archons are present, an assemblage of many 
luminous appearances runs round them, diffi- 
cult to be borne, whether these appearances 



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are mundane or terrestriaL They have not, 
however, a supermundane tenuity, nor even 
that of the supreme elements. And to the 
psychical appearances the air is more allied, 
and, being suspended from them, receives in 
itself their circumscription. 



CHAP. IX. 

In the last place, the dispositions of the soul 
of those that invoke the Gods to appear re- 
ceive, when they become visible, a liberation 
from the passions, a transcendent perfection, 
and an energy entirely more excellent, and par- 
ticipate of divine love and an immense joy. 
But when archangels appear, these dispositions 
receive a pure condition of being, intellectual 
contemplation, and an immutable power. When 
angels appear, they participate of intellectual 
wisdom and truth, pure virtue, stable know- 
ledge, and a commensurate order. But when 
daemons are seen, they receive the appetite of 
generation and a desire of nature, together with 
a wish to accomplish the works of Fate, and a 
power effective of things of this kind. If heroes 
are seen, they derive from the vision other such 
like manners and many impulses, which con- 
tribute to the communion of souls. But when 



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these dispositions come into contact with 
archonSy mundane or material^ motions are 
excited in conjunction with the soul. And, 
together with the vision of souls, the spectators 
derive genesiurgic tendencies and connascent 
providential inspections, for the sake of paying 
attention to bodies, and such other peculiarities 
as are allied to these. 

In addition to these things, also, the mani- 
festation of the Gods imparts truth and power, 
rectitude of works, and gifts of the greatest 
goods ; but the manifestation of other powers is 
appropriately accompanied by such things as 
are commensurate to their several orders. Thus 
the manifestation of archangels, imparts truth, 
not simply about all things, but definitely of 
certain things ; and this not always, but some- 
times; nor indefinitely to all, or every where, 
but with limitation, in a certain place, or to a 
certain individual. In like manner it does not 
impart a power effective of all things, nor 
always without distinction, nor every where; 
but a power which is effective sometimes, and 
in a certain place. But the manifestation of 
angels, in a still greater degree than that of 
archangels, divides, in imparting good, the cir- 
cumscriptions which are always defined by 
them in more contracted boundaries. Again, 
the manifestation of daemons does not impart 



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the goods of the soul, but either those of the 
body, or goods pertaining to the body. And 
they impart these when the order of the world 
permits them. After the same manner, like- 
wise, the manifestation of heroes imparts second 
and third goods, and regards as its scope the 
whole terrestrial and mundane polity of souls. 
With respect to archons, the manifestation of 
some of these imparts mundane benefits, and 
all the goods of life ; but that of others of an 
inferior rank imparts not a few of the preroga- 
tives of material natures. And souls, when 
they appear, procure for those that behold 
them things which contribute to the benefit of 
human life. Thus, therefore, we have appro- 
priately defined the gifts of these powers, con- 
formably to the proper order of each ; and the 
particulars in the manifestations about which 
you inquired, have received a fit reply. And 
thus much for these questions. 



CHAP. X. 



What you introduce, however, for the purpose 
of obtaining a knowledge of these things, whe- 
ther it be your own opinion, or whether you 
have heard it from others, is neither true nor 
rightly asserted. For you say, " that to speak 



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hoastingly^ and to exhibit an adumbrative phan- 
tasm^ are common to Gods and dcBmxms^ and to 
all the more excellent genera of heingsJ' But 
the thing is not as you apprehend it to be. For 
a God, an angel, and a good daemon, instruct 
men in what their proper essence consists; 
and never use an addition in their language 
which transcends their power, or their appro- 
priate good. For truth is coexistent with the 
Gods, in the same manner as light with the 
sun. And, at the same time, we say, that 
divinity is not in want of any beauty or virtue 
which it is possible to add to him through lan- 
guage. Moreover, angels and daemons always 
receive truth from the Gods, so that they never 
assert any thing contrary to this, each of them 
being essentially perfect, nor can they add any 
thing to it for the sake of commendation. 

When, therefore, does the deception men- 
tioned by you " of speakingly hoastingly " take 
place. For when a certain error happens in 
the theurgic art, and not such autoptic^ or self- 
visible, images are seen as ought to occur, but 
others, instead of these, then inferior powers 
assume the form of the more venerable orders, 
and pretend to be those whose forms they 
assume ; and hence arrogant words are uttered 
by them, and such as exceed the authority 
which they possess. For, as it appears to me. 



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if any fraud germinates from the first principle, 
much falsehood is derived from the perversion, 
which it is necessary the priest should learn 
from the whole order in the phasmata, and by 
the proper observation of which they are able 
to confute and reject the fictitious * pretext of 
these inferior powers, as by no means pertain- 
ing to true and good spirits. Nor is it proper 
to introduce errors in the true judgment of 
things ; for neither in other sciences or arts do 
we judge of their works from the aberrations 
which may happen to take place in them. You 
should not, therefore, here characterize things 
which are scarcely performed with rectitude 
through ten thousand labours, from the errors 
which may, through ignorance, befall them; 
but rather assert something else of them. For 
if the works which take place from the appear- 
ance of these powers are such as you say, viz. 
if they are arrogant and false, yet the operations 
about fire of true spirits are genuine and true. 
For, as in all other things, such as are principal 
primarily begin from themselves, and impart 
to themselves that which they give to others ; 
as, for instance, in essence, in life, and in motion ; 
thus also the natures which supply all beings 
with truth, primarily proclaim the truth of 

* For ireirXairqiievriv here, it seems requisite to read xc- 
wXau-fAcvtiv, Gale also, in his version, in this place has fictunu 



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themselves, and precedaneously unfold the es- 
sence of themselves to the spectators. Hence, 
likewise, they exhibit to theurgists a fire which 
is of itself visible. For it is not the province of 
heat to refrigerate, nor of light to darken or 
conceal any thing; nor with any other natmre 
which essentially performs a certain thing, is a 
power present of at the same time effecting the 
contrary. But things which do not possess a 
[true] nature, and which are contrary to things 
that exist essentially ; these are able to receive 
contraries, and are adapted to fall into evil. 

We must say the same thing, therefore, con- 
cerning phantasms. For if these are not true, 
but other things are so which have a real exist- 
ence, thus also in the appearances of spirits, 
they seem to be such as things which are true 
beings; at the same time they participate of 
falsehood and deception, in the same manner as 
the forms which present themselves to the view 
in mirrors; and thus vainly attract the mind 
about things which never take place in any of 
the more excellent genera. These phantasms, 
likewise, will consist in deceptive perversions. 
For that which is an imitation of [real] being, 
and is an obscure assimilation, and becomes 
the cause of deception, pertains to no one of 
the true and clearly existing genera. But the 
Pods, indeed, and those powers that follow the 



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Gods, reveal true images of themselves, but by 
no means extend phantasms of themselves, 
such as exist in water, or in mirrors. For on 
what account should they exhibit these ? Shall 
we say, as bringing with them an indication of 
their own essence and power? This, however, 
is by no means the case. For these phantasms 
become the cause of deception to those that 
believe in them, and withdraw the spectators 
from the true knowledge of the Gods. Shall 
we say, then, that it is because they aflFord a 
certain utility to those that behold them ? But 
what advantage can be derived from falsehood? 
If, therefore, this is not the case, may it not be 
natural to divinity to extend a phantasm from 
itself? But how can that which is firmly esta- 
blished in itself, and which is the cause of 
essence and truth, produce in a foreign seat a 
certain deceitful imitation of itself? By no 
means, therefore, does divinity either transform 
himself into phantasms, nor extend these from 
himself to other things, but emits, by illumina- 
tion, true representations of himself, in the true 
manners of souls. Conformably to this, also, 
the attendants of the Gods are emulous of the 
self- visible truth of the Gods. But that which 
you now say, " that it is common to Gods and 
dcBmons, and the rest of the more excellent genera^ 
to produce fictitious images ^ and to speak boast^ 



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ingly of themselves ^^^ confounds all the genera 
of superior beings in each other, and leaves no 
diflFerence whatever between them. For thus 
all things will be common to them, and nothing 
singularly excellent will be given to transcen- 
dent natures. It will, therefore, be more just 
to ask, in opposition to you, in what will the 
genus of the Gods be superior to that of dae- 
mons? These genera, however, have nothing 
in common, nor is the communion between them 
phantastic, nor is it fit from such natures as are 
last, and from the errors which take place in 
them, to estimate first essences, and the true 
impressions of forms which are in them. For 
by thus thinking concerning these essences, 
we shall think justly, and in a way pleasing to 
the Gods. 



CHAP. XL 



In what follows, in which you think that 
ignorance and deception about these things are 
impiety and impurity, and in which you exhort 
us to the true developement of these particulars, 
is not, indeed, attended with any ambiguity, 
but is acknowledged by all men. For who will 
not grant that the science which apprehends 
real being, is most adapted to a divine cause, 



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but that ignorance which is hurried along to 
nonbeing, since it is most remote from a divine 
cause, falls oflf from truly existing forms ? Since, 
however, what is said by you is not suflBcient, 
I will add what is wanting ; and because what 
you assert is rather philosophical and logical, 
than conformable to the eflBcacious art of priests, 
on this account I think it is necessary to say 
something more theurgical about these par- 
ticulars. 

For, let '^ignorance and deception he error 
and impiety,'^ yet it does not follow that, on 
this account, things which are offered to the 
Gods, and divine works, are false. For a con- 
ception of the mind does not conjoin theurgists 
with the Gods; since, if this were the case, 
what would hinder those who philosophize 
theoretically, from having a theurgic union with 
the Gods? Now, however, in reality, this is 
not the case. For the perfect eflBcacy of in- 
effable works, which are divinely performed in 
a way surpassing all intelligence, and the power 
of inexplicable symbols, which are known only 
to the Gods, impart theurgic union. Hence, 
we do not perform these things through intel- 
lectual perception ; since, if this were the case, 
the intellectual energy of them would be im- 
parted by us; neither of which is true. For 
when we do not energize intellectually, the 



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synthematd* themselves perform by themselves 
their proper work, and the ineffable power of 
the Gods itself knows, by itself, its own images. 
It does not, however, know them, as if excited 
by our intelligence; for neither is it natural 
that things which comprehend should be ex- 
cited by those that are comprehended, nor per- 
fect by imperfect natures, nor wholes by parts. 
Hence, neither are divine causes precedane- 
ously called into energy by our intellections; 
but it is requisite to consider these, and all the 
best dispositions of the soul, and also the purity 
pertaining to us, as certain concauses; the 
things which properly excite the divine will be- 
ing divine synthemata themselves. And thus, 
things pertaining to the Gods, are moved by 
themselves, and do not receive from any in- 
ferior nature a certain principle in themselves 
of their own proper energy. 

I have, however, been thus prolix, in order 
that you may not think all the authority of the 
energy in theurgic operations is in our power, 
and that you may not suppose the true work 
of them consists in our conceptions, or the 
falsehood of them in our deception. For though 
we may know the peculiarities which are con- 
sequent to each genus, yet we may not obtaiji 

"^ t. ^. The inexj^cable theurgic signs or symbols. 



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the truth which is in their works. Neverthe- 
less, eflBcacious union [with divine natures] is 
not eflfected without knowledge; yet know- 
ledge does not possess a sameness with this 
union. So that neither is divine purity ob- 
tained through right knowledge, as neither is 
purity of body procured through health; but 
divine purity is more undefiled than know- 
ledge, and is more transcendently united. Hence 
neither this, nor any thing of the like kind 
which is in us, and is human, cooperates any 
thing to the end of divine actions. 

Accept, therefore, this, which is said indeed 
incidentally, but is a suflBcient reply to the 
whole of your conception concerning the the- 
urgic art. Those assertions, also, of yours 
pertain to the same thing, in which you say, 
^*that the science of the Gods is sacred and 
useful^ and call the ignorance of things honour^ 
able and beautiful darkness^ but the knowledge 
of them light ; and also add, that the ignorance 
of these things fUs men vrith all evils^ through 
inerudition and audacity^ but the knowledge of 
them is the cause of all good^ For all these 
assertions tend to the same thing with the 
preceding, and obtain together with them an 
appropriate discussion. It is necessary, there- 
fore to omit them, and to pass on to the in- 
quiries concerning divination, and concisely 
dissolve them. 



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SECTION IIL 



CHAP. I. 

In the first place, therefore, you ask me to ex- 
plain to you distinctly, ''what that is which is 
effected in the/orehnowledge of future events?" 
Immediately, however, that which you endea- 
vour to learn is impossible. For, according 
to the meaning of your question, you think 
that foreknowledge is something which is gene- 
rated, or subsists in becoming to be, and per- 
tains to things which have a natural subsist- 
ence. It is not, however, one of the things 
which have their existence in becoming to be, 
nor is it efiected after the manner of physical 
mutation, nor is it invented and devised as 
something useful for the purposes of life, nor 
in short, is it a human work, but is divine and 
supernatural, and is supemally sent to us from 
the heavens. It is also unbegotten and eternal, 
and spontaneously has a precedaneous sub- 
sistence. 

The greatest remedy, therefore, for all such 
doubts is this, to know the principle of divina- 



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tion, that it neither originates from bodies, nor 
from the passions about bodies, nor from a cer- 
tain nature, and the powers about nature, nor 
from any human apparatus, or the habits per- 
taining to it. But neither does it originate from a 
certain art, externally acquired, about a certain 
part of such things as are subservient to life. 
For the whole authority of it pertains to the 
Gods, and is imparted by them; it is also 
effected by divine works, or signs ; and it pos- 
sesses divine spectacles, and scientific theorems. 
All other things, however, are subjected as in- 
struments to the gift of foreknowledge trans- 
mitted from the Gods ; viz. such things as per- 
tain to our soul and body, and such as are in 
the nature of the universe, or are inexistent in 
particular natures. But some things are pre- 
viously subjacent, as in the order of matter, 
such as places, or certain other things of the 
like kind. 

If some one, however, dismissing primordial 
causes, should refer divination to secondary 
o£Sces, such as the motions of bodies, or the 
mutations of passions, or certain other motions, 
or the energies of human life, or animal or physi- 
cal reasons, and should think that in so doing 
he asserts something manifest ; or if, consider- 
ing the symmetries of these with reference to 
each other, as causes, he should apprehend 

I 



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that he can assign something accurate con- 
cerning dirination, he wholly deviates from the 
truth. But the one right boundary, and the 
one principle of all these particulars, is by no 
means to produce without a cause the fore- 
knowledge of futurity, from' things which have 
no prescience in themselves, but to survey fix)m 
the Grods who contain in themselves the termi- 
nations of all the knowledge of beings, divina- 
tion distributed about the whole world, and 
about all the natures that are separately con- 
tained in it. For such a cause as this is pri- 
mordial, and is especially most common, con- 
taining in itself primarily those things which it 
gives to its participants, and particularly im- 
parting truth, of which divination is in want ; 
and antecedently comprehending the essence 
and cause of future events, from which fore- 
knowledge necessarily and incessantly pro- 
ceeds. Let such a principle as this, therefore, 
be the origin in common of all divination, from 
which it is possible to discover scientifically 
all the species of it; which we shall now un- 
fold, conformably to the questions proposed 
by you. 



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CHAP. II. 

CoNCEKNiNG the divination, therefore, which 
takes place in sleep, you say as follows : ** We 
frequently obtain through dreams^ when we are 
asleep^ a knowledge of future events ^ not being 
in an ecstasy y through which we are much agi- 
tated, for the body is quiet^ but we do not appre- 
hend what we see in the same clear manner as 
when we are awaTce^ It is usual, however, for 
what you here say, to happen in human dreams, 
and in dreams which are excited by the soul, 
or by some of our conceptions, or by reason, or 
by imaginations, or certain diurnal cares. And 
these, indeed, are sometimes true and some- 
times false ; ' and in some things they appre- 
hend reality, but in many deviate from it But 
the dreams which are denominated theopemptoi, 
or sent from God, do not subsist after the man- 
ner which you mention; but they take place 
either when sleep is leaving us, and we are 
beginning to awake, and then we hear a certain 
voice, which concisely tells us what is to be 
done; or voices are heard by us, between 
sleeping and waking, or when we are perfectly 
awake. And sometimes, indeed, an invisible 
and incorporeal spirit surrounds the recum- 

I2 



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bents, so as not to be perceived by the sight, 
but by a certain other cosensation and intelli- 
gence. The entrance of this spirit, also, is 
accompanied with a noise, and he diffuses him- 
self on all sides without any contact, and 
effects admirable works conducive to the libe- 
ration of the passions of the soul and body. 
But sometimes a bright and tranquil light 
shines forth, by which the sight of the eyes is 
detained, and which occasions them to become 
closed, though they were before open. The 
other senses, however, are in a vigilant state, 
and in a certain respect have a cosensation of 
the light unfolded by the Gods ; and the re- 
cumbents hear what the Gods say, and know, 
by a consecutive perception, what is then done 
by them. This, however, is beheld in a still 
more perfect manner, when the sight perceives, 
when intellect, being corroborated, follows what 
is performed, and this is accompanied with the 
motion of the spectators. Such, therefore, and 
so many being the differences of these dreams, 
no one of them is similar to human dreams. 
But wakefulness,''^ a detention of the eyes, a 

* For vTTvos here, it is necessary to read avirvos. For 
lamblichus has before shown that divine dreams are not 
produced in sleep, but either when sleep leaves us, or be 
tween sleeping and waking, or when we are perfectly awake. 



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similar oppression of the head, a condition be- 
tween sleeping and waking, an instantaneous 
excitation, or perfect vigilance, are all of them 
divine indications, and are adapted to the re- 
ception of the Gods. They are also sent by 
the Gods, and a part of divine appearances an- 
tecedes according to things of this kind. 

Take away, therefore, from divine dreams, 
among which also divination is contained, " the 
heing asleep J' and also the assertion, " that we 
do not apprehend what we see in sleep, in the 
same clear manner as when we are awake" For 
the Gods are no less clearly present with us in 
these dreams than when we are awake. And, 
if it be requisite to speak the truth, the pre- 
sence of the Gods, in the former case, is neces- 
sarily clearer and more accurate, and produces 
a more perfect perception than in the latter. 
Some, therefore, not knowing these indications 
of prophetic dreams, and conceiving that they 
have something in common with human dreams, 
rarely and casually obtain a foreknowledge of 
futurity, and in consequence of this, reasonably 
doubt how dreams contain any truth. And 
this, also, appears to me to disturb you, in con- 

The necessity of this emendation is also evident from what 
lamblichus shortly after adds, viz. that tve must take away 
from divine dreams the being asleep; i. e. the being in a 
profound sleep. 



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sequence of your not knowing the true indica* 
tions of dreams. It la necessary, howeyer, 
that, admitting these to be the elements of the 
true knowledge of dreams, you should attend 
to the whole of the discussion concerning 
divination in sleep. 



CHAP. III. 

The wise,* therefore, speak as follows : The 
soul having a twofold life, one being in con- 
junction with body, but the other being sepa- 
rate from all body; when we are awake we 
employ, for the most part, the life which is 
common with the body, except when we sepa- 
rate ourselves entirely from it by pure intellec- 
tual and dianoetic energies. But when we are 
asleep, we are perfectly liberated, as it were, 
from certain surrounding bonds, and use a life 
separated from generation. Hence, this form 
of life, whether it be intellectual or divine, and 
virhether these two are the same thing, or 
whether ^ich is peculiarly of itself one thing, 
is then excited in us, and energizes in a way 

* In the original there is nothing more than Xtyova-i 8i 
roBe in this place ; but the sense requires that we should 
read Xeyova-i 8c oi <ro^& ra^ And this emendation is eoa*- 
firmed by the versions of Scutellius and Gale. 



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conformable to its nature. Since, therefore, 
intellect surveys real beings, but the soul con- 
tains in itself the reasons of all generated na- 
tures, it very properly follows that, according 
to a cause which comprehends future events, 
it should have a foreknowledge of them, as 
arranged in their precedaneous reasons. And 
it possesses a divination still more perfect than 
this, when it conjoins the portions of life and 
intellectual energy to the wholes from which it 
was separated. For then it is filled from 
wholes with all scientific knowledge, so as for 
the most part to attain by its conceptions to the 
apprehension of every thing which is effected 
in the world. Indeed, when it is united to the 
Gods, by a liberated energy of this kind, it 
then receives the most true plenitudes of in- 
tellections, from which it emits the true divina- 
tion of divine dreams, and derives the most 
genuine principles of knowledge. But if the 
soul connects its intellectual and divine part 
with more excellent natures, then its phan- 
tasms will be more pure, whether they are 
phantasms of the Gods, or of beings essentially 
incorporeal, or, in short, of things contributing 
to the truth of intelligibles. If, also, it elevates 
the reasons of generated natures, contained in 
it to the Gods, the causes of them, it receives 
power from them, and a knowledge which 



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apprehends what has been, and what will be ; 
it likewise surveys the whole of time, and the 
deeds which are accomplished in time, and is 
allotted the order of providentially attending 
to and correcting them in an appropriate man- 
ner. And bodies, indeed, that are diseased it 
heals; but properly disposes such things as 
subsist among men erroneously and disorderly. 
It likewise frequently delivers the discoveries 
of arts, the distributions of justice, and the 
establishment of legal institutions. Thus in 
the temple of Esculapius, diseases are healed 
through divine dreams ; and, through the order 
of nocturnal appearances, the medical art is 
obtained from sacred dreams. Thus, too, the 
whole army of Alexander was preserved, which 
would otherwise have been entirely destroyed 
in the night, in consequence of Bacchus appear- 
ing in sleep, and pointing out a solution of the 
most grievous calamities. The city Aphutis, 
likewise, when besieged by King Lysander, 
was saved through a dream sent to him by 
Jupiter Ammon. For afterwards, he most 
rapidly withdrew his army from thence, and 
immediately raised the siege. 

What occasion, however, is there to be pro- 
lix in mentioning every particular of things 
which happen daily, and which exhibit an 
energy superior to all language ? What, there- 



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fore, has been said concerning divine divination 
in sleep is sufficient to show what it is, how 
it is effected, and what advantage it affords to 
mankind. 



CHAP. IV. 



Afterwards, also, you say, ^^ihat many, 
through enthusiasm and divine inspiration^ pre- 
dict future events y and that they are then in so 
wakeful a state^ as even to energize according to 
sense^ and yet they are not conscious of the state 
they are in^ or at least, not so much as they were 
before.^' I wish, therefore, here to point out to 
you the signs by which those who are rightly 
possessed by the Gods may be known. For 
they either subject the whole of their life, as a 
vehicle or instrument to the inspiring Gods; 
or they exchange the human for the divine 
life ; or they energize with their own proper 
life about divinity. But they neither energize 
according to sense, nor are in such a vigilant 
state as those who have their senses excited 
from sleep (for neither do they apprehend 
future events) ; nor are they moved as those 
are who energize according to impulse. Nor, 
again, are they conscious of the state they are 
in, neither as they were before, nor in any 



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other way; nor, in short, do they convert to 
themselves their own intelligence, or exert any 
knowledge which is peculiarly their own. 

The greatest indication, however, of the truth 
of this is the following. Many, through divine in- 
spiration, are not burned when fire is introduced 
to them, the inspiring influence preventing the 
fire from touching them. Many, also, though 
burned, do not apprehend that they are so, be- 
cause they do not then live an animal life. 
And some, indeed, though transfixed with 
spits, do not perceive it ; but others that are 
struck on the shoulders with axes, and others 
that have their arms cut with knives, are by no 
means conscious of what is done to them. 
Their energies, likewise, are not at all human. 
For inaccessible places become accessible to 
those that are divinely inspired ; they are thrown 
into fire, and pass through fire, and over rivers, 
like the priest in Castabalis, without being in- 
jured. But from these things it is demonstrated, 
that those who energize enthusiastically are 
not conscious of the state they are in, and that 
they neither live a human nor an animal life, 
according to sense or impulse, but that they 
exchange this for a certain more divine life, by 
which they are inspired and perfectly possessed. 



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CHAP. V. 

TflEKBi are, therefore, many species of divine 
possession, and divine inspiration is multifa- 
riously excited ; whence, also, the signs of it 
are many and different. For either the Gods 
are different, by whom we are inspired, and 
thus produce a different inspiration; or the 
mode of enthusiasms being various, produces 
a different afflatus. For either divinity pos- 
sesses us, or we give up ourselves wholly to 
divinity, or we have a common energy with 
him. And sometimes, indeed, we participate 
of the last power of divinity, sometimes of his 
middle, and sometimes of his first power. 
Sometimes, also, there is a participation only, 
at other times communion likewise, and some- 
times a union of these divine inspirations. 
Again, either the soul alone enjoys the inspira- 
tion, or the soul receives it in conjunction with 
the body, or it is also participated by the com- 
mon animal. 

From these things, therefore, the signs of 
those that are inspired are multiform. For the 
inspiration is indicated by the motions of the 
[whole] body, and of certain parts of it, by the 
perfect rest of the body, by harmonious orders 
and dances, and by elegant sounds, or the 



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contraries of these. Either the body, like- 
wise, is seen to be elevated, or increased in 
bulk, or to be borne along sublimely in the air, 
or the contraries of these, are seen to take 
place about it. An equability, also, of voice, 
according to magnitude, or a great variety of 
voice after* intervals of silence, may be ob- 
served. And again, sometimes the sounds 
have a musical intension and remission, and 
sometimes they are strained and relaxed after 
a different manner. 



CHAP. VI. 



That, however, which is the greatest thing is 
this, that he who [appears to] draw down a 
certain divinity, sees a spirit descending and 
entering into some one, recognizes its magni- 
tude and quality, and is also mystically per- 
suaded and governed by it. But a species of 
fire is seen by the recipient, prior to the spirit 
being received, which sometimes becomes mani- 
fest to all the spectators, either when the 
divinity is descending, or when he is departing. 
And from this spectacle the greatest truth and 
power of the God, and especially the order he 

* For Kara ra fiera^v BiaXafi/Savofieva k. A, I read fiera 

K.X. 



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possesses, as likewise about what particulars 
he is adapted to speak the truth, what the 
power is which he imparts, and what he is 
able to eflfect, become known to the scientific. 
Those, however, who, without these blessed 
spectacles, draw down spirits invisibly, are 
without vision, as if they were in the dark, and 
know nothing of what they do, except some 
small signs which become visible through the 
body of him who is divinely inspired, and cer- 
tain other things which are manifestly seen, 
but they are ignorant of all the most important 
particulars of divine inspiration, which are 
concealed from them in the invisible. But to 
return from this digression : if the presence of 
the fire of the Gods, and a certain inefiable 
species of light, externally accede to him who 
is possessed, and if they wholly fill him, have 
dominion over and circularly comprehend him 
on all sides, so that he is not able to exert any 
one proper energy, what sense, or animad- 
version, or appropriate projection of intellect, 
can there be in him who receives a divine 
fire ? What human motion, likewise, can then 
intervene, or what human reception of passion 
or ecstasy, or of aberration of the phantasy, 
or of any thing else of the like kind, such as 
is apprehended by the multitude, can take 
place? Let such, therefore, be the divine in- 



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dications of true inspiration &om the Gods, 
which he who attends to will not wander from 
a right knowledge concerning it 



CHAP. VII. 



It is not, however, sufficient to learn these 
things alone, nor will he who only knows these 
become perfect in divine science. But it is 
requisite also to know what enthusiasm is, and 
how it is produced. It is falsely, therefore, 
supposed to be a motion of dianoia, in con- 
junction with dsemoniacal inspiration. For 
human dianoia is not moved, if it is thus enthu- 
siastically affected ; nor is the inspiration pro- 
duced by deemons, but by the Gods. Neiliier 
is enthusiasm simply an ecstasy ; for it is a re- 
elevation and transition to a more excellent 
condition of being. But delirium and ecstasy 
evince a perversion to that which is worse. 
Hence, he who is an advocate for the latter, 
speaks, indeed, of things which happen to 
those that energize enthusiastically, yet does 
not teach that which is precedaneous. But 
this consists in being wholly possessed by di- 
vinity, which is afterwards followed by mental 
alienation. No one, therefore, can justly ap- 
prehend that enthusiasm is something pertain- 



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ing to the soul, or to some one of its powers, 
or to intellect or energies, or to corporeal 
imbecility, or that it cannot subsist without the 
debility of the body. For neither is the work 
of divine inspiration human, nor does the whole 
of it depend on human powers and energies ; 
but these, indeed, have the relation of a sub- 
ject, and divinity uses them as instruments. 
He accomplishes, however, the whole work of 
divination through himself, and being separated 
in an unmingled manner from other things, 
neither the soul nor the body being at all 
moved, he energizes by himself. Hence, when 
divinations are rightly effected in the way 
which I have mentioned, then they subsist 
without falsehood. But when the soul has 
been previously disturbed, or is moved in the 
interim, or the body intervenes, and confounds 
the divine harmony, then divinations become 
turbulent and false, and the enthusiasm is no 
longer true nor genuine. 



CHAP. VIII. 

If, therefore, true divination was a solution of 
the divine part of the soul from the other parts 
of it, or if it was a separation of intellect, or a 
certain extension of it; or if it was a vehe* 



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mence and extension of energy or passion, or 
an acuteness and motion of dianoia, or a fervour 
of intellect ; then, since all such like particu- 
lars are excited by our soul, enthusiasm might 
be reasonably supposed to be the offspring of 
the soul. If, however, the body, on account 
of certain temperaments, whether they are such 
as are melancholic, or any other, or, to speak 
more particularly, on account of heat, or cold, 
or moisture, or a certain specific quality of 
these, or the mixture or temperature of these 
in a certain proportion, or the pneumatic part 
of the soul, or the more and the less of these ; 
if any one of these is established as the cause 
of enthusiastic alienation, in this case, the alien- 
ation will be a corporeal passion, and will be 
excited by physical motions. But if its exci- 
tation originates from both the soul and the 
body, so far as these coalesce with each other, 
a motion of this kind will be common to the 
animal [produced by the union of the two]. 
The enthusiastic energy, however, is not the 
work either of the body or the soul, or of both 
conjoined. For these do not contain in them- 
selves a certain cause of divine alienation, nor 
are things of a more excellent nature adapted 
to be generated by such as are less excellent. 

But it is necessary to investigate the causes 
of divine mania. And these are the illumina- 



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tions proceeding from the Gods, the spirits 
imparted by them, and the all perfect domina- 
tion of divinity, which comprehends indeed 
every thing in us, but exterminates entirely 
our own proper consciousness and motion. 
This divine possession, also, emits words which 
are not understood by those that utter them ; 
for they pronounce them, as it is said, with an 
insane mouth, and are wholly subservient, and 
entirely yield themselves to the energy of the 
predominating God. The whole of enthusiasm 
is a thing of this kind, and is eflfected by these 
causes, though this must not be considered as 
asserted with consummate accuracy. 



CHAP. IX. 



What you afterwards say is as follows r **^ That 
some of those who suffer a mental alienation^ 
energize enthusiastically on heming cymbals or 
drums, or a certain modulated sounds such as 
those who are Coryhantically inspired^ those 
who are possessed hy Sahazius, and those who 
are inspired hy the mother of the Gods." It is 
necessary, therefore, to discuss the causes of 
these things, and to show how they are de- 
finitely produced 
That music^ therefore^ is of a motive nature^ 

K 



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and is adapted to excite the affections, and 
that the melody of pipes produces or heals the 
disordered passions of the soul, changes the 
temperaments or dispositions of the body, and 
by some melodies causes a Bacchic fury, but 
by others occasions this fury to cease;** and, 

♦ "Among the deeds of Pythagoras/' sajs lamUichus, 
in his Life of that father of philosophy^ (chap, xxv.) ''it is 
said, that once through the spondaic [i. e. Doric] song of 
a piper he extinguished the rage of a Tauromenlui lad, 
who had been feasting by night, and intended to bum 
the vestibule of his mistress, in consequence of seeing her 
coming from the house of his rival. For the lad was in- 
flamed and excited [to this rash attempt] hj a Phrygian 
song ; which, however, Pythagoras most rapidly suppressed. 
But Pythagoras, as he was astronomizing, happened to 
meet with the Phrygian piper at an unseasonable time of 
night, and persuaded him to change his Phrygian for a 
spondaic song ; through which the fury of the lad being 
immediately repressed, he returned home in an orderly 
manner, though a little before this he could not be in the 
least restrained, nor would, in short, bear any admonition ; 
and even stupidly insulted Pythagoras when he met him. 
When a eertain youth, also, rushed with a drawn sword on 
Anchilus, the host of Empedodes, because, being a judge, 
he had publicly condemned his father to death, and would 
have slain him as a homicide, Empedocles changed the in- 
tention of the youth, by singing to his lyre that verse of 
Homer, 

Nepenthe, without gall, o*er every ill 
Oblivion spreads. Odybs. Ub. 4. 

And thus snatched his host Anchilus from death, and the 
youth from the crime of homicide. It is also related, that 
the youth from that time became the most celebrated of the 



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likewise, liow the differences of these accord 
with the several dispositions of the soul, and 

disciples of Pythagoras. Farther stilly the whole Pythagoric 
school produced^ hy certain appropriate songs^ what they 
called exarhftU, or adaptation ; nfnarmogOf or elegance of 
manners ; and epaphe, or contact^ usefully oonducting the 
dispositions of the soul to passions contrary to those which 
it before possessed. For when they went to bed, they puri- 
fied the reasoning power from the perturbations and noises 
to which it had been exposed during the day, by certain 
odes and peculiar songs, and by this means procured for 
themselves tranquil sleep, and few and good dreams. But 
when they rose firom bed, they again liberated themselves 
from the torpor and heaviness of sleep, by songs of another 
kind. Sometimes, also, by musical sounds alone, unaccom- 
panied with words, they healed the passions of the soul and 
certain diseases, enchanting, as they say, in reality. And it 
is probable that from hence this name epoie, i. €. enchant- 
ment, came to be generally used. After this manner, there- 
fore, Pythagoras, through music, produced the most bene- 
ficial correction of human manners and lives." 

Proclus also, in his MS. Commentary on the First Alci- 
biades of Plato, observes, ''that of musical instruments 
some are repressive, and others motive ; some are adapted 
to rest, and others to motion. The repressive, therefore, 
are most useful for education, leading our manners into 
order, repressing the turbulency of youth, and bringing its 
agitated nature to quietness and temperance. But the 
motive instruments are adapted to enthusiastic energy ; and 
hence, in the mysteries and mystic sacrifices, the pipe is 
useful ; for the motive power of it is employed for the pur- 
pose of exciting the reasoning power to a divine nature. 
For here it is requisite that the irrational part should be laid 
a^eep, and the rational excited. Hence those that instruct 
youth use repressive instruments, but initiators such as are 
motive. For that which is disciplined is the irrational 

E2 



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that an unstable and variable melody is adapted 
to ecstasies, such as are the melodies of Olym- 
pus,* and others of the like kind ; all these 
appear to me to be adduced in a way foreign 
to enthusiasm. For they are physical and 
human, and the work of our art ; but nothing 
whatever of a divine nature in them presents 
itself to the view. 

We must rather, therefore, say, that sounds 
and melodies are appropriately consecrated to 
the Gods. There is, also, an alliance in these 
sounds and melodies to the proper orders and 
powers of the several Gods, to the motions in 
the universe itself, and to the harmonious 
sounds which proceed from the motions. Con- 
part ; but it is reason which is initiated, and which energizes 
enthusiastically. " 

See, likewise, on this subject, Ptolem. Harmonic, lib. iii. 
cap. 7 and 8, who observes among other things, ''that our 
souls directly sympathize with the energies of melody, 
recognizing, as it were, their alliance to them — and that at 
one time the soul is changed to a quiet and repressed con- 
dition, but at another to fury and enthusiasm. Tats cvcp- 
ycuiis Tqs /uXySias (rvfiirfurxeiv rifuav avriKpv^ ras \^X^^> '^^ 

avyy€V€iav wnr€p eTriyivoHTKOvcras et, irore fuv €is lycrvx* 

lav Kttft KaravoXriv TpeirerOai, wore Se cts oi^pov Kai cvOva-Laar" 
liov. And, in the last place, see Plato in his lo, and Aris- 
totle in his Politics. 

* Produs in Polit. p. 365, says, ''that the melodies of 
Olympus were the causes of ecstasy." Ta rov OXv/mtov 
[uXfj CK^ariKo. 



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formably, therefore, to such like adaptations of 
melodies to the Gods, the Gods themselves 
become present. For there is not any thing 
which intercepts; so that whatever has hut a 
casual similitvde tOy directly participates of, them. 
A perfect possession, likewise, immediately 
takes place, and a plenitude of a more ex- 
cellent essence and power. Not that the body 
and the soul are in each other, and sympathize, 
and are copassive with the melodies; but be- 
cause the inspiration of the Gods is not sepa- 
rated from divine harmony, but is originally 
adapted and allied to it, on this account it is 
participated by it in appropriate measures. 
Hence also, it is excited and restrained accord- 
ing to the several orders of the Gods. But 
this inspiration must by no means be called an 
ablation, purgation, or medicine. For it is not 
primarily implanted in us from a certain dis- 
ease, or excess, or redundance ; but the whole 
principle and participation of it are supemally 
derived from the Gods. 

Neither is it proper to say that the soul 
primarily consists of harmony and rythm. For 
thus enthusiasm would be adapted to the soul 
alone. It is better, therefore, to deny this, and 
to assert that the soul, before she gave herself 
to body, was an auditor of divine harmony; 
and that hence, when she proceeded into body, 



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134 

and heard melodies of such a kind as especially 
preserve the divine vestigie of harmony, she 
embraced these, from them recollected divine 
harmony, and tends and is allied to it, and as 
much as possible participates of it Hence the 
cause of divine divination may, after this man- 
ner, be assigned in conunon. 



CHAR X. 



Let us, however, discuss what pertains to 
divination more particularly ; not asserting this, 
that nature leads each thing to its like ; for the 
enthusiastic energy is not the work of nature ; 
nor again asserting that the temperature of the 
air, and of that which surrounds us, produces 
also a different temperature in the body of 
those that energize enthusiastically; since in- 
spiration, which is the work of the Gods, is 
not changed by corporeal powers or tempera- 
ments. Nor must we say, that, the much cele- 
brated inspiration of divinity is adapted to 
passions and generated natures. For the gift 
of the proper enei^ of the Gods ta men is 
impassive and superior to all generation. But 
since the power of the Corybantes is, in a 
certain respect, of a guardian and efficacious 



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135 

nature,* and that of Sabazius appropriately 
pertains to Bacchic inspiration, the purifica- 

* The nature of the Coiybantes, and the order to which 
they belong, is unfolded as follows by Produs, in Plat. 
Tlieol. lib. vi cap. IS. ''To what has been said we shall 
add the theory pertaining to the unpolluted * Gods among 
the ruling divinities [t. c among the divinities that subsist 
immediately after the intellectual Gods]. For Plato also 
gives us an opportunity of mentioning these^ since it is 
necessaxy that the rulers and leaders of wholes should sub- 
sist analogous to the intellectual kings^ though they make 
their progression in conjunction with division, and a separa- 
tion into parts. For as they imitate the paternal genera- 
tive and convertive powers oi the intellectual kings, thus also 
it is necessary that they should receive the immutable mo- 
nads in themselves, according to the ruling peculiarity, and 
establish over their own progressions secondary causes of a 
guardian characteristic And the mystic tradition, indeed, 
of Orpheus makes mention of these more clearly. But 
Plato being persuaded by the mysteries, and by what is per- 
formed in them, indicates concerning these unpolluted Gods. 
And in the Laws, indeed, he reminds us of the inflation of 
the pipe by the Corybantes, which represses every inordinate 
and tumultuous motion. But in the Euthydemus, he makes 
mention of the collocation on a throne, which is performed 
in the Corybantic mysteries ; just as in other dialogues he 
mentions the Curetic order, speaking of the armed sports of 
the Curetes. For the Curetes are said to surround and to 
dance round the Demiurgus of wholes, when he was un- 
folded into light from Rhea. In the intellectual Gods, 
therefore, the first Curetic order is allotted its hypostasis. 
But the order of the Corybantes, which precedes Core 
[f . e, Proserpine], and guards her on all sides, as the theology 

* These Gods are called wipoUuted, because they are the canses of 
puritp. For every God begins his own energy from hiniself^ and is that 
primarily which his effects are secondarily. 



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136 

tions of souls,* and the solutions of ancient 
divine anger.t on this account the inspirations 
of them entirely diflfer from each other. 

says^ is analogous to the Curetes in the intellectual order. 
If, however, you are willing to speak conformably to Pla- 
tonic custom, because these divinities preside over purity, 
and preserve the Curetic order undefiled, and also preserve 
immutability in their generations, and stability in their pro- 
gressions * into the worlds, on this account they were called 
Corybantes. For to Kopov, to koron, is every where signifi- 
cant of purity, as Socrates says in the Cratylus ; since, also, 
you may say that our mistress Core was no otherwise de- 
nominated than from purity and an unpolluted life. But, in 
consequence of her alliance to this order, she produces two- 
fold guardian triads, one in conjunction with her father, but 
the other herself by and from herself, imitating in this 
respect the whole vivific Goddess [Rhea] who constitutes the 
first Curetes." 

* Servius, in commenting on the ''Mystica vannus lacchi" 
of Virgil, observes, that the sacred rites of Bacchus per- 
tained to the purification of souls, " liberi patris sacra ad 
purgationem animarum pertinebant." And elsewhere he 
says, ''Animse acre ventilantur, quod erat in sacris Liberi 
purgationis genus." Euripides also, in Bacchis, exclaims, 
12 fjuiKap o?is evSaifjuav rcAeras Oetav 

Kai diaxr€V€rai ^^Vy 
Ev opeari. paK^evtav 
OariouTi. KaOapfwis, 

t. e, " O blessed and happy he, who knowing the mysteries 
of the Gods, sanctifies his life, and purifies his soul, cele- 
brating orgies in the mountains, with holy purifications." 

t " In the greatest diseases and labours (says Plato in the 
Phsedrus) to which certain persons are sometimes subject 
* For irc/uo^oct here, it is necessary to read x/xM^ott. 



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With respect, however, to the mother of the 
Gods, you, indeed, seem to think that those 

through the ancient indignation of the Gods, in consequence 
of former guilt, mania when it takes place, predicting what 
they stand in need of, discovers a liberation from such evils 
by flying to prayer and the worship of the Gods. Hence, 
obtaining by this means purifications and the advantages of 
initiation, it renders him who possesses it free from disasters 
both for the present and ftiture time, by discovering to him 
who is properly insane, and possessed by divinity, a solution 
of the present evils." And the Platonic Hermias beautiftdly 
unfolds the meaning of this ancient indignation of the Gods, 
through former guilt, as follows: ''Offences which have 
been committed for a great length of a time, are more difficult 
to be washed away, and a liberation from them can alone be 
effected by the telestic art ; but those that have been com- 
mitted for a shorter time are more easily cured. Thus, also, 
we see in the medical art, that maladies which have existed 
but for a little time, if they are paid attention to at their com- 
mencement, are easily remedied, but that when they are of 
long standing, they are more difficultly healed. For the 
evil in this case becomes as it were natural and confirmed by 
habit, and resembles an indurated ulcer. A similar thing 
to this, therefore, takes place in guilty conduct. Hence, if 
he who has committed an injury, immediately repents, and 
acknowledges his guilt to him whom he has injured, he dis- 
solves the injury, and renders himself no longer obnoxious 
to justice. But when some one dissolves an injury com- 
mitted by his father, by restoring, for instance, land which 
he had unjustly taken, he then makes himself to be unob- 
noxious to justice, and lightens and benefits the soul of his 
father. These things, however, the telestic art more swiftly 
remedies. Moreover, if it should happen that the whole 
race of some one successively use land which had originally 
been plundered, in this case, the injury in the first place be- 



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138 

who are possessed by the Goddess are males ; 
for, conformably to this, you denominate them 
Metrizantes. But the thing is not truly so. 
For those who are precedaneously inspired by 
the mother of the Gods are women; but the 
males that are thus inspired are very few in 
number, and such as are more effeminate. 

comes immanifest^ and on this account is more difficult to 
be cured ; and^ in the next place^ time causes the evil to be- 
come as it were naturaL Hence the Gods frequently pre- 
dict to men that they should go to such or such places, and 
that an apology should be made to this man, who was never 
known to them, and that he should be appeased, in order 
that thus they may obtain a remedy and be liberated from 
their difficulties, and that the punishments inflicted on them 
by the Furies may cease. The Gods, however, predict, not 
for the purpose of taking away punishment, but in order that 
justice may be done, and that we may be amended. The 
telestic art, therefore, renders him better who possesses the 
mania which it imparts, and through him saves also many 
others. Thus, for instance, it is related of one who was 
cutting down an oak, and though he was called on by a 
Nymph not to cut it down, yet persisted in felling it, 
that he was punished for so doing by the avenging Furies, 
that he was in want <^ necessary food, and that if at any 
time he met with it, it was immediately taken from him, till 
one who possessed the telestic art told him to raise an altar 
and sacrifice to this Nymph, for thus he would be liberated 
from his calamities. Another person, likewise, who had 
slain his mother, was freed from the punishment inflicted on 
him by the Furies by migrating to another country, con- 
formably to the mandate of divinity, and there fixing his 
abode." 



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This enthusiasm, however, has a vivific and 
replenishing power,* on which account, also, 
it in a remarkable degree differs from all other 
mania. 

Proceeding, therefore, in this way, in what 
remains of the present discussion, and fitly 
distinguishing the inspirations of the Nymphs, 
or of Pan, and the other differences of them, 
according to the powers of the Gods, we shall 
separate them conformably to their appropriate 
peculiarities ; and we shall also be able to 
explain through what cause they leap and 
dwell in mountains, why some of them appear 
to be bound, and why they are worshiped 
through sacrifices. All these, likewise, we 
shall ascribe to divine causes, as containing in 
themselves all the authority of these particu- 
lars ; but we shall not say that either a certain 
collected redundancy of body or soul requires 
to be purified, or that the periods of the sea- 
sons axe the causes of such like passions, or 
that the reception of the similar, and the abla* 
tion of the dissimilar, bring with them a certain 



♦ This is because Rhea, the mother of the Gods, is a 
vivific Goddess, being filled indeed (says Proclus> in Plat. 
TheoL lib. v. c. xi.) from the father prior to her [i. e. from 
Saturn] with intelligible and prolific power, but filling the 
Demiurgus [Jupiter], who derives his existence from her^ 
with vivific abundance. 



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140 

remedy for an excess of this kind. For all 
such like particulars are corporeal-formed, and 
are entirely separated from a divine and in- 
tellectual life. But each thing energizes con- 
formably to its nature ; so that the spirits 
which are excited by the Gods, and which 
produce in men Bacchic inspiration, expel 
every other human and physical motion; and 
it is not proper to assimilate their energies to 
those which are usually exerted after our man- 
ner ; but it is fit to refer them to perfectly 
different and primordial divine causes. One 
species, therefore, of divine inspiration is of 
this kind, and is after this manner produced. 



CHAP. XI. 



Another species of divine divination which is 
much celebrated, most manifest and manifold, 
is that of oracles, about which you say as 
follows : " There are some who drink water, as 
the priest of Clarius, in Colophon ; * hut others 
are seated at the mouth [of a cavern^, as those 
who prophesy at Delphi; and others imbibe 
the vapour from water, as the prophetesses in 

* See, concerning this oracle^ Scholiastes Apollonii ad i. 
librum^ et Tacitus ii. Annal. 5^ 



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141 

BrandchidcB.^' * You have, therefore, made 
mention of these three oracles by name, not 
that there are only these, for there are many 
more which you have omitted, but as these are 
more celebrated than the rest, and, at the same 
time, because through these you may be suffi- 
ciently instructed in the mode of divination 
sent to men from the Gods, hence, as it appears 
to me, you were satisfied with these. We, 
therefore, likewise shall discuss these three, 
omitting to speak about the many other oracles 
that exist. 

It is acknowledged then by all men, that the 
oracle in Colophon gives its answers through 
the medium of water. For there is a fountain 
in a subterranean dwelling from which the 
prophetess drinks; and on certain established 
nights, after many sacred rites have been pre- 
viously performed, and she has drank of the 
fountain, she delivers oracles,^ but h not visible 
to those that are presemt*^ That thia water, 
therefore, is prophetic^ is from hence manifest. 
But how it becomes so, this, according to the 
proverb, is not for every man to know. For it 
appears as if a certain prophetic spirit pervaded 
through the water. This is not, however; in 
reality the case. For a divine nature does not 

* This oracle is mentioned by Herodotus, 1. i., by S^raboy 
1. xiv. and by Ammian. Marcell. lib. xxix. 



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142 

pervade through its participants in this manner, 
according to interval and division, but com- 
prehends as it were externally, and illuminates 
the fountain,^ and fills it from itself with a 
prophetic power. For the inspiration which 
the water affords is not the whole of that which 
proceeds from a divine power, but the water 
itself only prepares us, and purifies our luciform 
spirit,t so that we may be able to receive the 
divinity; while^ in the mean time, there is a 
presence of divinity prior to this, and illumi- 
nating from on high. And this, indeed, is not 
absent from any one, who through aptitude is 
capable of being united to it* But this divine 
illumination is immediately present, and uses 
the prophetess as an instrument; she neither 
being any longer mistress of herself, nor capa- 
ble of attending to what she says, nor perceiv- 
ing where she is* Hence, after prediction, she 
is scarcely able to recover herself. And be- 
fore she drinks the water, she abstains from 
food for a whole day and night ; and retiring 
to certain sacred places, inaccessible to the 

* See Plutarch in his treatise De Defectu Oraculorum. 

t See Plutarch in the aboye mentioned treatise. Con- 
cerning this luciform spirit^ or vehicle, which is immortal^ 
and which is called by Olympiodorus avyociSes x*'"'**''* * 
luciform vestment, see my Translation of the fifth book of 
Proclus on the Timasus. 



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143 

multitude, begins to receive in them the en- 
thusiastic energy. Through her departure, 
therefore, and separation from human concerns, 
she renders herself pure, and by this means 
adapted to the reception of divinity : and from 
hence she possesses the inspiration of the God, 
shining into the pure seat of her soul, becomes 
full of an unrestrained afflatus, and receives 
the divine presence in a perfect manner, and 
without any impediment. 

But the prophetess in Delphi, whether she 
gives oracles to mankind through an attenuated 
and fiery spirit, bursting from the mouth of the 
cavern, or whether being seated in the adytum 
on a brazen tripod, or on a stool with four feet, 
she becomes sacred to the God ; whichsoever 
of these is the case, she entirely gives herself 
up to a divine spirit, and is illuminated with a 
ray of divine fire. And when, indeed, fire 
ascending from the mouth of the cavern cir- 
cularly invests her in collected abundance, she 
becomes filled from it with a divine splendour. 
But when she places herself on the seat of the 
God, she becomes coadapted to his stable pro- 
phetic power : and from both these preparatory 
operations she becomes wholly possessed by 
the God. And then, indeed, he is present 
with and illuminates her in a separate manner, 
and is different from the fire, the spirit, the 



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144 

proper seat, and, in short, from all the visible 
apparatus of the place, whether physical or 
sacred. 

The prophetic woman too in Brandchidse, 
whether she holds in her hand a wand,^ which 
was at first received from some God, and be- 
comes filled with a divine splendour, or whether 
seated on an axis, she predicts future events, 
or dips her feet or the border of her garment in 
the water, or receives the God by imbibing the 
vapour of the water ; by all these she becomes 
adapted to partake externally t of the God. 

But the multitude of sacrifices, the sacred 
law of the whole sanctimony, and such other 
things as are performed in a divine manner, 
prior to the prophetic inspiration, viz. the baths 
of the prophetess, her fasting for three whole 
days, her retiring into the adyta, and there 
receiving a divine light, and rejoicing for a 
considerable time — all these evince that the 
God is entreated by prayer to approach, that 

♦ It was usual for those who prophesied to carry a wand. 
Ilresiafi had a sceptre, and Abaris an arrow. The Scho- 
liast on Nieander says, that the Egyptian and Scythian 
magi, and also many of those in Europe, prophesied with 
wands. And Eustathius on the Odyssey, p. 1657, observes, 
" that there is a certain magic in divine wands," esse in 
papSoK deiotis TLva /layeiav. 

t That is, to partake of an illumination, which has n« 
cyw-^Sy or habitude, to any thing materiaL 



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145 

he becomes externally present, and that the 
prophetess, before she comes to her accustomed 
place, is inspired in a wonderful manner ; and 
that, in the spirit which rises from the foun- 
tain, another more ancient God, who is sepa- 
rate from the place, shines forth to the view, 
and who is also the cause of the place, of the 
country, and of the whole divination. 



CHAP. XII. 

It appears, therefore, that the divination of 
oracles accords with all the hypotheses which 
we have before adduced concerning prediction. 
For if a power of this kind was inseparable from 
the nature of places, and of the bodies which 
are the subjects of it, or proceeded * according 
to a motion defined by number, it would not 
be able to foreknow, with invariable sameness, 
things which exist every where and always. 
But being separate and liberated from places 
and things which are measured by the numbers 
of time, and also from those which are detained 
in place, it is equally present with all things 
wherever they may be, and subsists simul- 
taneously with all the natures that are pro- 

* For rj Tpoiova-a here, it seems necessary to read 17 irpo 
lova-a, 

L 



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146 

duced according to time. It likewise com- 
prehends in one the truth of all things, through 
its separate and transcendent essence. 

Hence, if this is rightly asserted by us, the 
prophetic power of the Gods is not partibly 
comprehended by any place, or partible human 
body, nor by the soul, which is detained in one 
certain species of divisible natures ; but being 
separate and indivisible, it is wholly every 
where present with the natures which are capa- 
ble of receiving it It likewise externally illu- 
minates and fills all things, pervades through 
all the elements, comprehends earth and air, 
fire and water, and leaves nothing destitute of 
itself, neither animals nor any of the produc- 
tions of nature, but imparts from itself a cer- 
tain portion of foreknowledge, to some things 
in a greater, and to others in a less, degree. 
Moreover, existing itself prior to all things, by 
its own separate nature, it becomes sufficient 
to fill all things, so far as each is able to par- 
take of it. 



OHAP. XIIL 

Let us, therefore, now direct our attention to 
another species of divination, which is not 
public, but of a private nature, concerning 



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147 

which you say, " that some become enthusiastic 
by standing on characters^ as those that are filled 
from the intromission of spirits" This species, 
therefore, through those who badly use it> can- 
not easily be comprehended in one definition. 
But it is obvious and superficial, and known to 
many, and employs a falsehood and deception 
which are not to be endured ; nor is it at all 
attended with the presence of a certain divinity, 
but it produces a certain motion of the soul, 
which is adverse to the Gods, and attracts 
from them an obscure and adumbrative repre- 
sentation, which, through the evanescent nature 
of its power, is usually disturbed by daamonia- 
cal depraved spirits. That, however, which 
is truly a representation of the Gods, is in other 
respects genuine and pure, immutable and true, 
and is inaccessible to, and unimpeded by, spirits 
of a contrary nature* For> as darkness is not 
adapted to sustain the splendour of the glitter* 
ing light of the sun, but suddenly becomes 
totally invisible, entirely recedes,, and imme- 
diately vanishes; thus, also, when the power 
of the Gods, which fills all things with good, 
abundantly shines forth, no place is left for the 
tumult of evil spirits, nor can it present itself 
to the view ; but, as if it was nothing, it de- 
parts into nonentity, not being able to be at all 
moved^, when more excellent natures aire pre^ 

l2 



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148 

sent, or to disturb * such natures in their illu- 
minations. 

* Proclus, in his MS. Commentary on the First Aldbi- 
ades of Plato, observes, " that in the mysteries some one of 
the more imperfect daemons assmnes the appearance of one 
that is more perfect, and draws down to himself souls that 
are not yet purified, and separates them from the Grods. 
Hence, in the most holy of the mysteries [t. e, in the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries], prior to the manifest presence of the God 
[who is invoked], certain terrene daemons present them- 
selves to the view, disturbing those that are initiated, divuls- 
ing them from undefiled good, and exciting them to matter. 
On this account the Gods [in the Chaldean oracles] order us 
not to behold them, till we are guarded by the powers im- 
parted by the mysteries. For they say, 

Ov yap yjyri k€ivovs <r€ pXeweiv irpiv (rtaiui reXco'dci?. 

t. e. It is not proper you should behold them till your body 
is purified by initiation. And they add the reason, 

Ort ras tfrv)(as deXyovrts a€i tcA-ctcov awayova-i, 

t. e. For these daemons alluring souls, always draw them 
away from the mysteries. 

Conformably to this, also, Proclus in Plat. Theol. p. 7, 
says, wrrr€p cv rats tcov TcXertov aytcorarai? ^(uri rovs ftv^as, 
Tqv fuv irpiartjv froX.v€iSecn, Kai iro\vfiop<l>oiS nav B^iav irpo- 
pfPkrjiJi^vois y€V€a'iv awavr^v, cio-tovras 8c, aicA.iv€t$, Kai rais 
TeA-erat? 'jr€<f>payfuvovs, avrqv tqv Oeiav eXkajx^iv aK/oaK^vco? 
«yKoXfl"if€<rdai, jcat yvftviras (<as av CKetvo* fJMtev) rov Oeiov 
/iCTaAa^)3av€tv, rov avrov ot/iai rponrov Kai €v tq $€(api^ rcuv 
oXcDv. i. e. '' As in the most holy of the mysteries, they say, 
that the mystics at first meet with the multiform and many 
shaped genera [t. e. with evil daemons], which are hurled 
forth before the Gods, but on entering the interior parts of 
the temple, unmoved, and guarded by the mystic rites, they 
genuinely receive in their bosom divine illumination, and 
divested of their garments, as they would say, participate of 



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M9 

Since, therefore, these dijBFer so greatly, I 
shall not use any other indications, in order to 
distinguish them, than those which are adduced 
by you. For when you say, ^^sofne standing 
on characters/' you seem to signify nothing 
else than the cause of all the evils pertaining 
to these things. For there are some who, 
neglecting the whole business of the telesiurgic 
theory, both concerning the invoking [priest] 
and the inspector (exoxTjyy), and also despising 
the order of religion, and the most holy endu- 
rance of labours for a long time, and rejecting 
the sacred laws and ordinances, and other re- 
ligious ceremonies, think that the standing on 
characters is alone sufficient, and that by doing 

a divine nature ; the same mode^ as it appears to me, takes 
place in the speculation of wholes." 

That mitred sophist, Warburton, as I have elsewhere 
called him, from not imderstanding the former part of this 
latter extract from Proclus, ridiculously translates the words 

"multiform shapes and species, that prefigure the first gene- 
ration of the Gods." See his Divine Legation of Moses, 
book ii. p. 152, 8vo. a work replete with distorted concep- 
tions and inaccurate translations. And yet, as great a 
sophist as Warburton was, and notwithstanding the work I 
have just mentioned abounds with false opinions, and such 
as are of the most pernicious kind, yet he is compelled by 
truth to acknowledge, in book ii. p. 172, "that the wisest 
and best men in the Pagan world are unanimous in this, that 
the mysteries were instituted pure, and proposed the noblest 
end by the worthiest means." But this by the way. 



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150 

this for one hour, they can cause a certain 
spirit to enter ; though how is it possible that 
any thing beautiful or perfect can be effected 
by these? Or how, by ephemeral works, can 
a contact be produced with the eternal and 
true essence of the Gods in sacred deeds? 
Through these things, therefore, it appears 
that such like rash men entirely err, and that 
they do not deserve to be ranked among 
diviners. 



CHAP. XIV. 



Concerning another kind of divination, also, 
you say as follows : " Others who are conscious 
what they are doing in other respects, are 
divinely inspired according to the phantastic 
part, some indeed receiving darkness for a co- 
operator ^ others certain potions, hut others in 
cantations and compositions. And some ener^ 
gize according to the imagination through 
water, ^ others in a wall, others in the open air, 

♦ This divination according to the imagination through 
water, may be illustrated by the following extract from 
Damascius (apud Photium) : Tvvq upa Ocofioipov t^onxra 
(fyvfriv Trap^XoyoTanyv. vBw/j yap ey^&sxra aKpai.<f>V€^ iroTqpuf 
rivi TO)V vakivdiv, €(opa Kara rov v8aTOS ctcro) tov irorqpiov ra 
i^xwfiara tu)v €<ro/jt€va)V Tpaypxirtav, Kai irpovXeyev awo Tiys 
o\^eu)S avta awcp c/ieXXcv co-eo-^at Travrcos. rf 8e weipa rot 



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151 

and others in the light of the sun^ or some other 
celestial body." The whole, however, of this 
kind of divination of which you now speak, 
since it is multiform, may be comprehended in 
one power, which may be called the eduction 
of light * But this illuminates with divine 
light the etherial and luciform vehicle t with 
which the soul is surrounded, from which 
divine visions occupy our phantastic power, 
these visions being excited by the will of the 
Gods. For the whole life of the soul and all 
the powers that are in it, being in subjection to 
the Gods, are moved in such a way as the 
Gods, the leaders of the soul, please. 

irpayfiaros ovk cXadev rjfia^, i,e, ''There was a sacred 
woman who possessed in a wonderful manner a divinely 
gifted nature. For pouring pure water into a certain glass 
cup, she saw in the water that was within the cup the lumi- 
nous appearances of future events, and from the view of 
these she entirely predicted what would happen. But of 
this experiment we also are not ignorant" 

* "The Platonists," says Psellos (ad Nazianzenum) 
" assert iiiat light is spread under divine substancesi, and is 
rapidly seized, without any difficulty, by some who possess 
such an excellent nature as that which fell to the lot of 
Socrates and Plotinus. But others, at certain periods, ex- 
perience a mental alienation about the light of the moon." 

t Concerning this vehicle, in which the phantastic power 
resides, see vol. ii. of my translation of Proclus on the 
Timeus of Plato, p. 407 ; the Introduction to my translation 
of Aristotle on the Soul ; and the long extract fW>m Syne- 
sius on Dreams, in vol. ii. of my Proclus on Euclid. 



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And this takes place in a twofold manner, 
either from the Gods being present with the 
soul, or imparting to the soul from themselves 
a certain forerunning light ; but, according to 
each of these modes, the divine presence and 
the illumination have a separate subsistence. 
The attentive povrer, therefore, and dianoia * 
of the soul, are conscious of what is eflfected, 
since the divine light does not come into con- 
tact with these ; but the phantastic part is 
divinely inspired, because it is not excited to 
the modes of imaginations by itself, but by the 
Gods, the phantasy being then entirely changed 
from human custom. 

Since, however, a contrary is receptive of a 
contrary, according to a mutation and departure 
from itself, and that which is allied to another 
thing, and familiar t with it through similitude, 
is capable of receiving it, hence the illuminators 

* t. e. The discursive energy of reason. 

t Proclus in Plat. Polit. having observed that Socrates in 
the Phaedrus, when he speaks in a divinely inspired man- 
ner, and poetically adopts such names as are employed by 
the poets, and says that it is not possible for one who speaks 
with an insane \i, e. with an inspired] mouth to abstain from 
them, adds " that an alliance to the daemoniacal genus, pre- 
paring the soul for the reception of divine light, excites the 
phantasy to symbolic narration." H irpos BaLfioviov ycvos 
oiKcion^s, rj Tpoevrpeiri^ova'a rqv rov Ouov <^(otos vapova-uav, 
■avaKivei Tqv ifxivrao-Lav eis rqv (mfxPoX.iK'qv airayyeXiav, 
p. 396. 



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receive darkness as a cooperator, and employ 
in illuminating the light of the sun, or of the 
moon, or, in short, of the air. 

Sometimes, likewise, they use collocations 
of such things as are adapted to the Gods that 
are about to descend, or they employ incanta- 
tions or compositions, and these appropriately 
prepared for the reception, presence, and mani- 
festation of the Gods. And again, sometimes 
they introduce light through water, because 
this being diaphanous, is aptly disposed to the 
reception of light. But at other times, they 
cause light to shine forth on a wall, having 
previously prepared the wall for the reception 
of light in the best manner by the sacred de- 
scriptions of characters ; and, at the same time, 
they fix the light in a certain solid t)lace, so 
that it may not be widely diffused. 

Many other modes, also, of introducing light 
might be mentioned ; but all of them may be 
referred to one mode, that of irradiation, where- 
ever it may be effected, and through whatever 
instruments the Gods may illuminate. Since, 
therefore, this illumination accedes externally, 
and has every thing which it possesses subser- 
vient to the will and intelligence alone of the 
Gods, and as the greatest thing pertaining to 
it, possesses a sacred irradiating light, either 
supemally derived from ether, or from the aii:, 



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T)r the moon, or the sun, or from some other 
celestial sphere,— this being the case, it is 
evident from all these particulars, that such a 
mode of divination as this is unrestrained, pri- 
mordial, and worthy of the Gods. 



CHAP. XV. 



Let us, therefore, pass on to the mode of divi- 
nation which is effected through human art, 
and which possesses much of conjecture and 
opinion. But concerning this you say as follows : 
*' Some also establish the art of the investigation 
of futurity through the viscera^ through birds, and 
through the stars.'' And there are, indeed, many 
other arts of this kind, but the above are suffi- 
cient to exhibit the whole artificial species of 
divinatioiL Universally, therefore, this art em- 
ploys certain divine signs, which derive their 
completion from the Grods, according to various 
modes. But from divine portents, according 
to an alliance of things to the signs which are 
exhibited, art in a certain respect decides, 
and from certain probabilities conjecttirally 
predicts. The Gods, therefore, produce the 
signs, either through nature, which is subser- 
vient both generally and particularly to the 
generation of effects; or through genesiurgip 



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155 . 

deemons, who presiding over the elements of 
the universe, partial bodies, and every thing 
contained in the world, conduct with facility 
the pheenomena, conformably to the will of the 
Gods. But these signs symbolically premani- 
fest the decrees of divinity and of futurity, as 
Heraclitus says, "neither speaking nor con- 
cealing, but signifying ; " * because they express 
the mode of fabrication through premanifesta- 
tion. As, therefore, the Gods generate all 
things through forms t, in a similar manner 
they signify all things through signs, impressed 
as it were by a seal {Sia arvvQrifiarwv). Perhaps, 
likewise, they render by this mean our intelli- 
gence more acute. And thus much has been 
said by us in common concerning the whole of 
this kind of human art. 



CHAP. XVI. 



Descending, however, to particulars, the soul 
of animals, the daemon who presides over them, 
the air, the motion of the air, and the circula- 
tion of the heavens, variously change the vis- 

* These words of Heraclitus are also quoted by Plutarch 
in his treatise De Defectu Oracnlorum. 

t For ctKovwv here, I read etScov. 



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156 

cera,* conformably to the will of the Gods. 
But an indication that they are so changed is 
this, that they are frequently found without a 
heart,t or deprived of the most principal parts, 
without which it is not at all possible for 
animals to be supplied with life. With respect 
to birds, likewise, the impulse of their proper 
soul moves them, and also the daemon who 
presides over animals ; and, together with these, 
the revolution of the air, and the power of the 
heavens which descends into the air, accord 
with the will of the Gods, and consentaneously 
lead the birds to what the Gods ordained from 
the first. Of this the greatest indication is, 
that birds frequently precipitate themselves to 
the earth, and destroy themselves, which it is 

* Herodian, lib. viii. observes, that the Italians very 
much believed in the indications of future events through 
the viscera : and Strabo, lib. xvii. asserts the same thing. 

t The auspices were said to be pestiferous when there 
was no heart in the entrails, or when the head was wanting 
in the liver. This was the case with the animals that were 
sacrificed by Caesar on the day in which he was slain. The 
same thing also happened to Caius Marius, when he was 
sacrificing at Utica. But when Pertinax was sacrificing, 
both the heart and the liver of the victim were wanting, 
whence his death was predicted, which happened shortly 
after. In the sacrifices, likewise, which Marcellus per- 
formed prior to the unfortunate battle with the Carthagi- 
nians, the liver was found to be without a head, as Plutarch: 
and Livy, Pliny and Valerius Maximus relate.^ 



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not natural for any thing to do; but this is 
something supernatural, so that it is some other 
thing which produces these effects through 
birds. 

Moreover, the lations of the stars approxi- 
mate to the eternal circulations of the heavens, 
not only locally, but also in powers, and the 
irradiations of , light. But these are moved 
conformably to the mandates of the celestial 
Gods. For the most pure, agile, and supreme 
part of the air, is adapted to be enkindled 
[i. e. is most inflammable], so that when the 
Gods assent, it is immediately set on fire. And 
if some one thinks that certain effluxions of the 
celestial bodies are imparted to the air, his 
opinion will not be discordant with what is 
frequently effected by the divine art. The 
union, also, and sympathy of the universe, and 
the simultaneous motion of the most remote 
parts, as if they were near, and belonged to 
one animal, cause these signs to be sent from 
the Gods to men in the most luminous manner, 
primarily, indeed, through the heavens, but 
afterwards through the air. 

From all that has been said, therefore, this 
becomes manifest, that the Gods, employing 
many instruments as media, send indications 
to men ; and that they also use the ministrant 
aid of daemons and souls, and the whole of 



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158 

nature, and of every thing in the world which 
is willingly obedient to them, they being the 
primordial leaders of all these, and transmitting 
the motion which descends from them wherever 
they please. Hence, they being separate from^all 
things, and liberated from all habitude and co- 
arrangement with things in generation, lead all 
that generation and nature contains, according 
to their own proper will. This explanation^ 
therefore, of divination accords with the doc- 
trine of the fabricative energy and providence 
of the Gods. For ft does not draw down the 
intellect of more excellent natures to sublunary 
concerns and to ug> but this intellect being 
established in itself, converts to itself signs and 
the whole of divination, and discovers that 
these proceed jfrom it. 



CHAP. XVII. 



In the next place you inquire ''concerning the 
mode of divination, vJiai it is^ and what the 
quality is hy which it is distinguished^^ which 
we have already explained, both generally and 
particularly. But you, in the first place, re- 
present diviners aa asserting, " that all of them 
obtain a foreknowledge of future events through 
Gods or dcBmons^ and that it is not possible for 



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159 

any otJiers to Tcnow that t4;hich is fiUure, than 
those who are the lords of futurity!' After- 
wards you doubt, ** whethe^^ divinity is so far 
subservient to meny as not to he averse to some 
hecoming diviners from, mealy You do not, 
however, properly apprehend the abundance 
of the power of the Gods, their transcendent 
goodness, and the cause which comprehends 
all things, when you denominate their provi- 
dential care and defence of us subserviency. 
And, besides this, you are ignorant of the mode 
of divine energy, that it is not drawn down 
and converted to us, but that it has a separate 
precedency, and gives itself, indeed, to its par- 
ticipants, yet neither departs from itself, nor 
becomes diminished, nor is ministrant to those 
tlwd; receive it ; hut, on the contrary, uses all 
things as subservient to itself. The present 
doubt also appears to me to be erroneous in 
another respect, for supposing the works of the 
Gods to be like those of men, it inquires how 
they are effected. For because we are eon- 
verted to our works, and sometimes adhere to 
the passions of the things which we provi- 
dentially attend to> an this account you badly 
conjecture that the power cf the Gods is sub- 
servient to the natures which are governed by 
them. But this power is never drawn down 
to its participants either in the production of 



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160 

the worlds, or in the providential inspection of 
the realms of generation, or in predicting con- 
cerning it For it imparts to all things good, 
and renders all things similar to itself It 
likewise benefits the subjects of its government 
most abundantly, and without envy, and by 
how much the more it abides in itself, by so 
much the more it is filled with its own proper 
perfection. And it does not itself, indeed, be- 
come any thing belonging to its participants, 
but it causes the things which receive it to 
partake of its peculiarities, and preserves them 
in an all-perfect manner. It also abides at the 
same time perfectly in itself, and comprehends 
them at once in itself, but is neither vanquished 
nor comprehended by any one of them. In 
vain, therefore, are men disturbed by a sus- 
picion of this kind. For divinity is not divided 
together with the above mentioned modes of 
divination, but produces all of them impartibly. 
Nor does he effect different things at a different 
time, in a distributed manner, but produces all 
of them according to one energy, collectively 
and at once. Nor is he detained about signs, 
being comprehended in, or divided about, them ; 
but contains them in himself, and in one order, 
and comprehends them in unity, and produces 
them from himself, according to one invariable 
will. 



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IGl 

If, also, the power of the Gods proceeds in 
premanifestation as far as to things inanimate, 
such as pebble stones, rods,* pieces of wood, 
stones, com, or wheat, this very thing is most 
admirable in the presignification of divine pro- 
phesy ; because it imparts soul to things inani- 
mate, motion to things immoveable, and makes 
all things to be clear and known, to partake of 
reason, and to be defined by the measures of 
intellection, though possessing no portion of 
reason from themselves. Another divine miracle 

* Gale observes that this appears to have been a very 
ancient mode of divination^ and does not differ from that 
which is comprehended under the term wood. Hence the 
Scholiast, in Nicandri Theriaca, says, " that the Magi and 
Scythians predicted from the wood of the tamarisk. For in 
many places they predict from rods. And that Dinon, in 
the first book of his third Syntaxis, observes, "that the 
Median diviners predict from rods." The Scholiast like- 
wise adds the testimony of Metrodorus, who says, "that the 
tamarisk is a most ancient plant, and that the Egyptians, in 
the solemnity of Jupiter, were crowned with the tamarisk, 
and also the Magi among the Medes." He adds, "that 
Apollo also ordained that prophets should predict from this 
plant, and that in Lesbos he wears a tamarisk crown, has 
often been seen thus adorned, and that in consequence of 
this he was called by the Lesbians fivpiKaiov, Muricaion, 
[from fjLvpLKV], the tamarisk]." What the Scholiast here 
says, is confirmed by Herodotus, in lib. Lv. and elsewhere. 
To this, also, what every where occurs about prediction 
from the laurel pertains. For if the leaves of the laurel 
when committed to the fire made a noise, it was considered 
as a good omen, but if they made none, a bed one. 

M 



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162 

also divinity appears to me to exhibit through 
signs in these things. For, as he sometimes 
makes some stupid man to speak wisely, 
through which it becomes manifest to every 
one, that this is not a certain human but a divine 
work; thus» also, he reveals through things 
which are deprived of knowledge, conceptions 
which precede all knowledge* And, at the 
same time, he declares to men that the signs 
which are exhibited are worthy of belief, and 
that they are superior ta nature, from which 
he is exempt. Thus he makes things to be 
known which are naturally unknown, and 
things which are without knowledge gnostic. 
Through them, also, he inserts in us wisdom, 
and through every thing which is in the world 
excites our intellect to the truth of real beings, 
of things which are in generation, and of future 
events. From these things, therefore, I think 
it is manifest, that the mode of divination is 
perfectly contrary to what you suspected it to 
be. For it is of a ruling and primordial nature, 
of an unrestrained power, and transcendent 
nature, comprehending in itself all things, but 
not being comprehended by any things nor 
enclosed by its participants. For it ascends 
into, and rules over, all things simultaneously, 
and without circumscription, and collectively 
signifies future events. Hence, from what has 



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163 

been said, you may easily dissolve these vulgar 
doubts, which disturb most meu^ and may in a 
becoming manner elevate yourself to the in- 
tellectual, divine, and irreprehensible presigni- 
fication of the Gods from all things. Through 
this;, therefore, we have evinced, that divinity is 
not drawn down to the signs employed by 
divination. 



CHAP. XVIII. 



Another contest,^ however, awaits us„ not less 
than that in which we have been before en- 
gaged, and which you immediately announce, 
concerning the causes of divination, " wheilier 
a Gody an angel^ or a dcsmon, or some other 
power, is present in manifestations, or divina- 
tions, or certain other sacred energies.'* But 
our reply to your question is simply this, that 
it is not possible for any thing to be performed 
in a manner adapted to sacred concerns in 
divine works, without the presence of some 
one of the more excellent natures, as inspect- 
ing and giving completion to the sacred energy. 
And where the felicitous operations are perfect, 
sufficient to themselves, and unindigent, of 
these the Gods are the leaders. But where 
they are media, and in a small degree fall short 

M 2 



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164 

of the extremes, they have angels as the powers 
that perfect and unfold them into light. And 
it is the province of daemons to effect those 
operations which rank as the last. But the 
right performance of actions which are effected 
in a divine manner, is entirely to be ascribed 
to some one of the more excellent natures. 
For since it is not possible to speak rightly 
about the Gods without the Gods, much less 
can any one perform works which are of an 
equal dignity with divinity, and obtain the fore- 
knowledge of every thing without [the inspiring 
influence of] the Gods. For the human race 
is imbecile, and of small estimation, sees but a 
little, and possesses a connascent nothingness ; 
and the only remedy of its inherent error, per- 
turbation, and unstable mutation, is its par- 
ticipation, as much as possible, of a certain 
portion of divine light. But he who excludes 
this, does the same thing as those who attempt 
to produce soul from things inanimate, or to 
generate intellect from things unintelligent. 
For without the cooperation of a cause, he 
constitutes divine works from things which are 
not divine. 

Let it be granted, therefore, that a God, a 
daemon, or an angel, gives completion to more 
excellent works, yet we must not on this ac- 
count admit what you adduce as a thing acknow- 



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165 

ledged, " that they affect these things^ in conse- 
quence of being drawn through us by the neces- 
sities with which invocation is attended." For 
divinity is superior to necessity, and this is 
likewise the case with all the choir of more 
excellent natures that is suspended from him. 
Nor is he alone exempt from the necessity 
which is introduced by men, but also from that 
which comprehends in itself the world; be- 
cause it is not the province of an immaterial 
nature, and which does not receive any adven- 
titious order, to be subservient to any necessity 
introduced from any thing else. And in the 
next place, invocation, and the things performed 
by a scientific operator, accede and are con- 
joined to more excellent natures through simi- 
litude and alliance, and do not accomplish 
their energies through violence. Hence, the 
effects which are seen to take place in diviners, 
do not happen as you think, from the scientific 
theurgist being passively affected; nor is divi- 
nation thus effected through necessity, passion 
preoccupying the predictor; for these things 
are foreign from, and incongruous to, the es- 
sence of more excellent natures. 



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166 



CHAP. XIX. 

But neither does the cause [of the energies] of 
more excellent natures subsist as a certain 
middle instrument,* nor does he who invokes 
operate through him who prophesies; for to 
assert these things is impious. And it is much 
more true to say, that God is all things, is able 
to effect all things, and that he fills all things 
with himself, and is alone worthy of sedulous 
attention, t esteem, the energy of reason, and 

* Gele, in his translation^ has totally mistaken the mean- 
ing of the original in this place^ and it is not unusual with 
him to do so. For the original is aXX^ ovSt cos opyavov n 
fieaov €^i TO T(ov Kp€LTTOV(ov tttTtov, icttt Spa 8ia Tov ^ecnrtfovTos 
o KaXtov, This he thus translates : " Sed neque dicendum 
est fatidicum animum esse instrumentum intermedium divi- 
norum, sacerdotem veroinvocantem essetanquam efficientem 
causam." In consequence, also, of this mistake, he errone- 
ously conceives that lamblichus dissents from himself. 

t God is all things causally, and is able to effect all 
things. He likewise does produce all things, yet not by 
himself alone, but in conjunction with those divine powers 
which continually germinate, as it were, from him, as from 
a perennial root. Not that he is in want of these powers to 
the efficacy of his productive energy, but the imiverse re- 
quires their cooperation, in order to the distinct subsistence 
of its various parts and different forms. For as the essence 
of the first cause, if it be lawful so to speak, is fiiU of deity, 
his immediate energy must be deific, and his first progeny 
must be Gods. But as he is ineffable and superessential, 
all things proceed from him ineffably and superessentially. 



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167 

felicitous honour; that which is human being 
vile, of no account, and ludicrous, when com- 
pared with that which is divine. Hence I 
laugh, when I hear it said, that divinity is spon- 
taneously present with certain persons or things, 

For progressions are conformable to the characteristics of 
the natures from which they proceed. Hence the cooperat- 
ing energy of his first progeny Is necessary to the evolution 
of things into efiable^ essential^ and distinct subsistence. 
The supreme God, therefore, is, as lamblichus justly ob- 
serves, alone worthy of sedulous attention, esteem, the energy 
of reason, and felicitous honour; but this is not to the ex- 
clusion of paying appropriate attention and honour to other 
powers that are subordinate to him, who largely participate 
of his divinity, and are more or less allied to him. For in 
reverencing and paying attention to these appropriately, we 
also attend to and reverence him. For that which we sedu- 
lously attend to, honour, and esteem in them, is that alone 
which is of a deified nature, and is therefore a portion, as it 
were, of the ineffable principle of all things. 

Gale, from not understanding this, exclaims, "if these 
things are true, (viz, that God is alone worthy of sedulous 
attention, &c.) as they are, indeed, most true, to what pur- 
pose, O lamblichus, is that mighty study and labour about 
daemons and other spirits ? " But the answer to this, by 
regarding what has been above said, is easy. For mighty 
study and labour about these intermediate powers is neces- 
sary, in order to our union with their ineffable cause. For 
as we are but the dregs of the rational nature, and the first 
principle of things is something so transcendent as to be 
even beyond essence, it is impossible that we should be 
united to him without media ; viz. without the Gods, and 
their perpetual attendants, who are on this account the true 
saviours of souls. For in a union with the supreme deity 
our true salvation consists. 



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either through the period of generation, or 
.through other causes. For thus that which is 
unbegotten will no longer be more excellent, if 
it is led by the period of generation ; nor will 
it be primarily the cause of all things, if it is 
coarranged with certain things, according to 
other causes. These assertions, therefore, are 
unworthy of the conceptions which we should 
frame of the Gods, and foreign from the works 
which are effected in theurgy.^^ But an in- 
vestigation of this kind suffers the same thing 
as the multitude suffer, about the fabrication 
of the universe and providence. For not be- 
ing able to learn what the mode is in which 
these are effected, and refusing to ascribe 
human cares and reasonings to the Gods, they 
wholly abolish the providential and fabricative 
energy of divinity. As, therefore, we are accus- 
tomed to answer these, that the divine mode 
of production and providential inspection is 
very different from that which is human, and 
which it is not proper wholly to reject through 

* For these conceptions and these works teach us, that in 
reality we, through sacred operations, approach to divinity, 
but that divinity does not draw near to us. Hence Proclus 
in Alcibiad. €V rats icA.iyo'co't, Kai €v rais avroipuuLS wpocTLevai 
TTWS Tjfxiv <f>aiV€raL to ^€tov, rffMov CTravarctvo/xcvwv err avro, 
i. e, " In invocations of the Gods, and when they are clearly 
seen, divinity, in a certain respect, appears to approach to 
us, though it is we that are extended to him." 



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169 

ignorance, as if it had not from the first any 
subsistence; thus, also, it may be justly con- 
tended against you, that all prediction, and the 
performance of divine works, are the works of 
the Gods, as they are not effected through other 
and these human causes, but through such as 
are alone known to the Gods. 



CHAP. XX. 



Omitting, therefore, these things, we may 
reasonably adduce a second cause, assigned 
by you, of the above mentioned particulars: 
viz. ''that the soul says and imagines these 
things, and that they are the passions of it, 
excited from small incentives." Neither, how- 
ever, does nature possess these passions, nor 
does reason admit them. For every thing 
which is generated is generated from a certain 
cause, and that which is of a kindred nature 
derives its completion from a kindred nature. 
But a divine work is neither casual, for a thing 
of this kind is without a cause, and is not en- 
tirely arranged, nor is it produced by a human 
cause. For this is a thing foreign and sub- 
ordinate ; but that which is more perfect cannot 
be produced from the imperfect. All works. 



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170 

therefore, which have a similitude to divinity 
germinate from a divine cause. For the human 
soul is contained by one form, and is on all 
sides darkened by body, which he who deno- 
minates the river of Negligence, or the water 
of Oblivion, or ignorance and delirium,* or a 

* Gale, in his note on these words, after having observed 
that Porphyry says, that ignorance, darkness, and foUy 
attend the soul in its lapse into body ; and that, according 
to Servius, the soul, when it begins to descend into body, 
drinks of folly and oblivion, quotes also Irenseus (lib. ii. 
c. 59)> who makes the following stupid remark : " Souls 
entering into this life [it is said] drink of oblivion, before 
they enter into bodies, from the daemon who is above this 
ingress. But whence do you know this, O Plato, since your 
soul also is now in body ? For if you rememlier the daemon, 
the cup, and the entrance, it is likewise requisite that you 
should know the rest." To this it is easy to reply, that a 
soul purified and enlightened by philosophy, like that of 
Plato, is able to recognise many things pertaining to its pre- 
existent state, even while in the present body, in conse- 
quence of partially emerging from corporeal darkness and 
oblivion ; but that it is not capable of knowing every thing 
distinctly, till it is perfectly liberated from the deliriiun of 
the body. And Gale, no less sillily, adds, " respondebunt 
Platonici haec omnia cognovisse Platonem ex narratione, 
quae circumferebatur de Ere Armenio, qui Lethes aquam 
non biberat. t. e, *' The Platonists will answer that Plato 
knew all these things from the narration of the Armenian 
Erus [in the Republic] who did not drink of the water of 
Lethe." For Plato did not obtain this knowledge from any 
historical narration, but from possessing in a transcendent 
degree the cathartic and theoretic virtues, and from ener- 
gizing enthusiastically (or according to a divinely inspired 
energy) through the latter of these virtues. 



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bond through passions,* or the privation of 
life, or some other eril, will not by such appel- 
lations sufficiently express its turpitude. How, 
therefore, is it possible that the soul, which is 
detained by so many evils, can ever become 
sufficient to an energy of this kind ? It is, in- 
deed, by no means reasonable to suppose that 
she can. For if at any time we appear to be 
capable of effecting this, it is alone through 
participating of, and being illuminated by, the 
Gods, that we enjoy the divine energy. Hence 
the soul does not participate of divine works, 
so far as she possesses her own proper virtue 
and wisdom ; though if works of this kind per- 
tained to the soul, every soul would perform 
them, or that soul alone which possessed its 
proper perfection. Now, however, neither of 
these is sufficiently prepared for this purpose ; 
but even the perfect soul is imperfect as with 
reference to divine energy. The theurgic energy, 

* Agreeably to this. Porphyry says in his K<f>opimi irpos 
ra vorjra, or Auxiliaries to Intelligibles, ^XV Karah^irai 

vpos TO (Tdifjua, rrj €7n>*^po<f>rj tq wpo^ ra vaOrj ra air' avrov, 

And ^X"*? ^^^^ €avrrjv €v r<f (rtofjMTi, i. e. ''The soul is 
bound to the body, by a conversion to the passions arising 
from her union with it." And, *' the soul binds herself in 
the body/' Philolaus also says, that the ancient theologists 
and prophets asserted, (os Bui rtvas rifnapta^ a ^^^ r^ 
<ro)/xaTt <rw€(evKraif Kai Kadairep €v (rapxiTi tovt(^ r^Bawrai^ 
" that the soul is conjoined to the body on account of cer- 
tain punishments, and that it is buried in it as in a sepulchre." 



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therefore, is a different thing, and the felicitous 
accomplishment of divine works is imparted 
by the Gods alone. For if this were not the 
case, the worship of the Gods would not, in 
short, be requisite, but divine goods might be 
present with us from ourselves, without the 
exercise of religion. If, therefore, these opi- 
nions are insane and stupid, it is proper to 
abandon an hypothesis of this kind, as not 
affording a cause which deserves to be men- 
tioned of the accomplishment of divine works. 



CHAP. XXI. 

Is, therefore, what you add in the third place 
more true ; viz. ** that there is a certain mixed 
form of hypostasis^ consisting of our soul and 
divine inspiration externally derived f^ Consider 
this then more accurately, lest we should be 
deceived by it, being impeded by its plausi- 
bility. For wherever one thing is effected 
from two, this one thing is wholly of a similar 
species, nature, and essence. Thus the elements 
which concur in the same thing, produce one 
certain thing from many, and many souls co- 
alesce in one total soul. That, however, which 
is perfectly exempt, can never become one 



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173 

with that which departs from itself;* so that 
neither will there be one certain form of hypos- 

* This assertion, that the nature which is perfectly exempt 
can nev^r become one with that which departs from itself, is 
opposed by Grale^ who says that man is composed of soul 
and body, and yet the latter is far inferior to, and less ex- 
cellent than, the former. But in adducing this instance, he 
clearly shows that he does not understand what lamblichus 
says. For the human soul being a medium between a cer- 
tain impartible and partible essence^ so far as it partakes of 
the partible essence, has a certain alliance with body, and is 
not perfectly exempt from it. But this is not the case with 
divine inspiration and our soul : for the former in a perfectly 
exempt manner transcends the latter. Let it, therefore, be 
granted him that, as Psellus says, '^ hypostatic imion con- 
ducts different essences or natures to one h)rpostasis," yet 
such a union can never take place between two things, one 
of which has no habitude, proximity, or alliance to the other. 
Gale was led into this mistake by not properly attending to 
the words perfectly exempt, to vavr^hos e^-Qprifievov, which 
are here employed by lamblichus. But such mistakes are 
usual with Gale, from his inaccurate and rambling manner 
of thinking. He likewise forgot, at the time he was writing 
notes on lamblichus, that he was the master of a grammar 
school, and not a philosopher. 

From what^ has been said, the absurdity, also, of their 
opinion is immediately obvious, who fancy that the divine 
essence can be mingled and united with the mortal nature. 
For if such a union were possible, it would benefit and 
exalt the latter, but injure and degrade the former. Just as 
in the union of the rational soul with the body (as Proclus 
beautifully observes in Tim. p. 339), " the former, by verg- 
ing to a material life, kindles indeed a light in the body, but 
becomes herself situated in darkness ; and by giving life to 
the body, destroys both herself and her own intellect [in as 
great a degree as these are capable of receiving destruction]^ 



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tasis with the soul and divine inspiration. For 
if divinity ia unmingled, the soul will not be 
mingled with it; and if he is immutable^ he 
will not be changed through a concretion into 
that which is common, from the simplicity of 
his subsistence. Some, therefore, priolr to us, 
were of opinion that certain small sparks excite 
in us divine forms. It is impossible, however, 
that these sparks,, whether they are physical, 
or in some other way corporeal-formed, should 
be transferred from things of a casual nature 
to things which are divine. But in what is 
now asserted by you, the soul is said to be a 
concause of the divine comixture; and it is 
evident, this being admitted^ that the soul be- 
comes of an equal dignity with the Gods, that 
it gives a certain part to them and receives a 
part' from them, and that it also affords a 
measure to natures more excellent than itself 
and is itself bounded by them. That likewise 
follows which is asserted by some, and is most 
dire, that the Gods precedaneously subsisting 
in the order of elements, are inherent in their 

For thus the mortal nature participates o{ intellect^ but the 
intellectual part of death, and the whole^ as Plato observes 
in tlie Laws,, becomes a.prodigy composed of the m<»rtal and 
the immortal, of the intellectual and that which isdeprived of 
intellect. For this physk»l law which binds the soul to the 
body is the death of the immortal life, but vivifies the mortal 
body." 



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effects, and there will be a certain thing pro« 
duced in time, and from a mixture according 
to time, which will contain the Gods in itself. 
What, likewise, is this comingled form of sub- 
sistence ? For if it is both [soul and divine in- 
spiration externally derived], it will not be one 
thing consisting of two, but a certain compo- 
site, and a coacervation from two things. But 
if it is as something different from both, eternal 
natures will be mutable, and divine natures 
will in no respect differ from physical sub- 
stances in generation.* And as it is absurd 

* Here again Gale, from not understanding, opposes 
lamblichus. For he says, " sed nee hoc sequitur. S. Max- 
imus^ ubi hypostaticam uni<Niein dedarat ; haec inquit, cer- 
nuntur in corpore et anima. Una ex utroque confit hypos- 
tasis composita. Servat autem in se naturam perfectam 
utriusque sc corporis et anims, icat n^i' rovn^v ^la^topoM 
atrvfi^vpTOv k<u ra tSuAfiara, €urvfiff>vpra k<u ajjvyyyra. i, e, 
'* But neither does this follow. S. Maximits, where he un- 
folds hypostatic union, says these things are perceired in the 
soul and body. One composite h3rpostasis is produced from 
both. But this hypostasis preserves in itself the p^ect 
nature of each, and likewise the differoice of these unmin- 
gled,axid the peculiarities unmingled and unconfused." This 
hypostatic union, however, as we hare before observed, 
cannot take place between divine inspiration and the aoul, 
because the former is perfectly exempt from the latter. 

Gale adds, ''Qu«ro autem quid velit lamblichus per 
afAffMw? Opinor, ^y^iv et rrjjv <^a>^cK ^lov twurvouLV. 
Non £icile evincet eirtyvotai? esse aiSiov ti, utpote quae sit 
transiens dei actio." i. e. ''I a^ what lamblichus means^ 
by both. I think the soul and divine inqnraiion external^ 



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to admit that an eternal nature is produced 
through generation, it is still more absurd to 
suppose that any thing which consists of eternal 
natures can be dissolved. Neither, therefore, 
is this opinion concerning divination by any 
means reasonable; and besides this, it is also 
paradoxical, whether it is considered as one 
supposition or as two. 



CHAP. XXII. 



You say, therefore, ''that the soul generates 
the power which has an imaginative perception 
of futurity^ through motions of this kindy or 

derived. But he will not easily prove that inspiration is 
something eternal^ because it is a transient energy of Grod." 
Gale is right in his conjecture, that lamblichus by the word 
both in this place, means the soul and divine inspiration ex- 
ternally derived ; for it can admit of no other meaning ; 
but when he adds, that inspiration cannot be something 
eternal, because it is a transient energy of divinity, he shows 
himself to be as bad a theologist as he is a philosopher. 
For God being an eternal, or rather a superetemal nature, 
his energies have nothing to do with time and its transitive 
progressions, but are stably simultaneous ; so that transition 
does not exist in his inspiring influence, but in the recipients 
of it, these being of a temporal and mutable nature. Hence 
it is just as absurd to call any energy of divinity transient, 
as it would be to say that the light of the sun is transient, 
because it shines through diaphanous, but not through ^ 
opaque, substances. 



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177 

that the things which wre adduced from matter 
constitute daemons through the powers that are 
inherent in them, and especially things adduced 
from the matter which is taken from animals" 
It appears ta me, however, that what is now 
asserted by you exhibits a dire illegality with 
reference to the whole of theology and the 
theurgic energy. For one absurdity in it, and 
which is the first that presents itself to the view, 
is this, that it makes daemons to be generable 
and corruptible. And another, which is more 
dire than this, is that things which are prior 
will be produced from things which are pos- 
terior to themselves. For daemons exist prior 
to soul, and to the powers which are distri- 
buted about bodies. In addition to these 
things, also, how can the energies of a partible 
soul which is detained in body, become es- 
sence, and be by themselves separate out of 
soul? Or how can the powers which are di- 
vided about, be separated from bodies, though 
they have their very being in bodies? And 
who is it that liberating them from a corporeal 
condition of subsistence, again collects the cor- 
poreal dissolution, and causes it to coalesce in 
one thing ? For thus a thing of this kind will 
be a daemon, who will have an existence prior 
to his being constituted. This assertion, like- 
wise, is attended with certain common doubts. 

N 



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F6r how 6an divination be produced from 
things whidh have no divining poweir I And how 
can i^oul be generated from things which lure 
without sottlt And, in abort, how can things 
which are more perfect be the progeny of such 
as are more imperfect? The mode> likewise, 
of production appears to me to be impossible. 
For it is impossible that essence should be 
produced through the motions of the soul, and 
through the powers which are in bodies. For 
from things which ar© "without essence, it is 
impossible that essence should be generated. 

Whence, also, does the imagination, receiv 
ing from a certain thing a divining power, be- 
cotae prophetic of futurity? For We do not 
see that any one of the things which are sown 
through generation possess any thing more 
than what is imparted to it by its first generat- 
ing cause. But, in the present instance, the 
imagination will receive a certain more excel- 
lent addition from that which has no existence. 
Unless some one should say, that deemons 
preside over the matter which is derived from 
animals, and that when this matter is adduced, 
the presiding daemon is sympathetically moved 
towards it. According to this opinion, there- 
fore, daemons are not generated from the powers 
in bodies; but preceding and having an exist- 
ence prior to bodies, they are moved in con- 



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179 

fonnity to them. Let it, however, be admitted, 
that dsemons are thus sympathetic, yet I do 
not see after what manner there will be some- 
thing true respecting futurity. For the fore- 
knowledge and premanifestation of futurity is 
not the province of a copassive and material 
power, which is detained in a certain place and 
body; but, on the contrary, this pertains to a 
power which is liberated from all these. Such, 
therefore, are the corrections of this opinion. 



CHAP. XXIII. 



The animadversions which are after this ad- 
duced, at first, indeed, doubt about the mode 
of divination, but as they proceed, endeavour 
entirely to subvert it. We shall, therefore, 
discuss both these. And, in the first place, 
we shall begin to dissolve the former of these 
doubts. "jPor in deep^ when we are not em- 
ployed about any thing^ we sometimes obtain a 
knowledge of the future" Not that the cause 
of divination is derived both from us and ex- 
ternally: for in things the principle of which 
definitely subsists in us, and that which is con- 
sequent is externally derived, if these two have 
a coarrangement and connexion with each other, 
in this case the works of the two are definitely 

n2 



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180 

effected, and the things which are suspended 
from them follow their precedaneous causes. 
But when the cause is independent of us, and 
preexists by itself, the end is not defined on 
account of us, but the whole depends on things 
external to us. Now, therefore, since the truth 
which is in dreams does not entirely concur 
with our works, but frequently shines forth 
from itself, it shows that divination is externally 
derived from the Gods, that it possesses an in- 
dependent power, and that it benevolently un- 
folds futurity when it pleases, and in such a 
way as it pleases. These things, therefore, 
should have an answer of this kind. 



CHAP. XXIV. 

In what follows, while you endeavour to unfold 
divination, you entirely subvert it. For if a 
passion of the soul is admitted to be the cause 
of it, what wise man will attribute to an un- 
stable and stupid thing orderly and stable fore- 
knowledge? Or how is it possible that the 
soul, which is in a sane and stable condition 
according to its better powers, viz. those that 
are intellectual and dianoetic, should be igno- 
rant of futurity ; but that the soul which suffers 
according to disorderly and tumultuous mo- 



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181 

tions, should have a knowledge of what is 
future ? For what has passion in itself adapted 
to the theory of beings ? And is it not rather 
an impediment to the more true intellection of 
things? Farther still, therefore, if the things 
contained in the world were constituted through 
passions, in this case passions, through their 
similitude, would have a certain alliance to 
them. But if they are produced through rea- 
sons and through forms, there will be another 
foreknowledge of them, which is liberated from 
all passion. Again, passion alone perceives that 
which is present, and which now has a subsist- 
ence; but foreknowledge apprehends things 
which do not yet exist. Hence, to foreknow is 
different from being passively affected. 

Let us, however, consider your arguments 
in support of this opinion. That ^^ihe senses 
are occupied^' therefore tends to the contrary 
to what you say ; for it is an indication that no 
human phantasm is then excited. But ^^ the 
fumigations which are introduced^' have an alli- 
ance to divinity, but not to the soul of the 
spectator. And ^^the invocations'* do not ex- 
cite the inspiration of the reasoning power, or 
corporeal passions in the recipient; for they 
are perfectly unknown and arcane, and are 
alone known to the God whom they invoke. 
But that " not all men, hut those that are more 



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182 

simple and young are more adapted to divina- 
tion" manifests that such as these are more 
prepared for the reception of the externally 
acceding and inspiring spirit. From these in- 
dications, however, you do not truly conjecture 
that enthusiasm is a passion. For it follows 
from these signs, that the influx of it, in the 
same manner as the inspiration, is externally 
derived. In this way, therefore, these things 
subsist. 



CHAP. XXV. 



That which follows in the next place, de- 
scends from a divine alienation of mind to an 
ecstasy of the reasoning power which leads it 
to a worse condition, and absurdly says, " that 
the cause of divination is the mania which hap- 
pens in diseases." For, as we may conjecture, 
it assimilates enthusiasm to the redundancy of 
the black bile, to the aberrations of intoxica- 
tion, and to the fury which happens from mad 
dogs. It is necessary, therefore, from the be- 
ginning, to divide ecstasy into two species, one 
of which leads to a worse condition of being, 
and fills us with stupidity and folly; but the 
other imparts goods which are more honour- 
able than human temperance. One species 



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183 

also deviates to a disorderly, coufiised, and 
material motion ; but the other gives itself to 
the cause which rules over the orderly distri- 
bution of things in the world. And the one, 
indeed, as being deprived of knowledge, wan- 
ders from wisdom; but the other conjoins 
with natures that transcend all our wisdom, 
The one, likewise, is unstable, but the other is 
immutable. The one is preternatural, but the 
other is above nature. The one draws down 
the soul, but the other elevates it And the 
one entirely separates us from a divine allot- 
ment, but the other connects us with it. 

Why, therefore, does your assertion so zauch 
wander from the proposed hypothesis, as to 
decline from things primary ai;id good to the 
last evils of insanity ? For in what is enthusi- 
asm similar to melancholy, or intoxication, or 
any other delirium excited by the body? Or 
what prediction can ever be produced from 
diseases of the body? Is not a derivation of 
this kind a perfect corruption, but divine in- 
spiration the perfection and salvation of the 
«^1 ? And does not depraved enthusiasm take 
place through imbecility, but the enthusiasm 
which is more excellent through a plenitude 
of power? In short, the latter being quies- 
cent, according to its own proper life and in- 
telligence, gives itself to be used by another 



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184 

f power which is superior to itself]; but the 
fonner, energizing according to its proper ener- 
gies, renders these most depraved and turbu- 
lent. This, therefore, is a diflference the most 
manifest of all others, because all the works of 
divine natures diflfer [in a transcendent degree] 
from the works of other beings. For as the 
more excellent genera are exempt from all 
others, thus also their energies do not resemble 
those of any other nature. Hence, when you 
speak of divine mania, immediately remove 
from it all human perversions. And if you 
ascribe a sacred ^'sobriety and vigilance'* to 
divine natures, you must not consider human 
sobriety and vigilance as similar to it. But by 
no means compare the diseases of the body, 
such as su£fusions, and the imaginations ex- 
cited by diseases, with divine imaginations. 
For what have the two in common with each 
other? Nor again, must you compare "an 
ambiguous state,** such as that which takes 
place between a sober condition of mind and 
ecstasy, with sacred visions of the Gods, which 
are defined by one energy. But neither must 
you compare the most manifest surveys of the 
Gods with the imaginations artificially pro- 
cured by enchantment. For the latter have 
neither the energy, nor the essence, nor the 
truth of the things that are seen, but extend 



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185 

mere phantasms, as far as to appearances 
only. 

All such doubts as these, however, which 
are adduced foreign to the purpose, and tend 
from contraries to contraries, we do not con- 
sider as pertinent to the present hypothesis. 
Hence, as we have shown the unappropriate- 
ness of them, we do not think it requisite to 
discuss them any further, because they are con- 
tentiously introduced, and not with philosophi- 
cal investigation. 



CHAP. XXVI. 

There are many other contentious innovations 
also, which may be the subject of wonder. 
But some one may justly be astonished at the 
contrariety of opinions produced by admitting 
either that the truth of divination is with en- 
chanters, the whole of which subsists in mere 
appearances alone, but has no real existence ; 
or that it is with those who are incited by 
passion or disease, since every thing which 
they have the boldness to utter is fraudulently 
asserted. For what principle of truth, or what 
auxiliary of intelligence, either smaller or great- 
er, can there be in those who are thus insane ? 
It is necessar}', however, not to receive truth of 



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186 

such a kind as that which may be fortuitous ; 
for this, it is said, may happen to those that are 
rashly borne along. Nor must such truth be 
admitted as that which subsists between agents 
and patients, when they are concordantly ho* 
mologous with each other ; for truth of this 
kind is present with the senses and imagina* 
tions of animals. Hence this truth has nothing 
peculiar, or divine, or superior to common 
nature. But the truth of divination is estab-* 
lished in energy with invariable sameness, has 
the whole knowledge of beings present with it, 
and is connascent with the essence of things. 
It likewise employs stable reasons, and per- 
fectly, aptly, and definitely knows all things. 
This truth, therefore, is adapted to divination. 
Hence, it is very far from being a certain natU'- 
ral prescience, such as the preperception which 
is inherent in some animals of earthquakes and 
rain. For this arises from sympathy, when 
certain animals are moved in conjunction with 
certain parts and powers of the universe; or 
when, through the acuteness of a certain sense, 
they antecedently perceive things which hap- 
pen in the air, before they accede to places 
about the earth. 

If, therefore, these assertions are true, though 
we derive from nature impressions by which 
we obtain a knowledge of things, or come into 



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contact with futurity, it is not proper to con- 
sider an impression of this kind as prophetic 
foreknowledge ; but it is, indeed, similar to 
this knowledge, yet falls short of it in stability 
and truth, is conversant with that which fre- 
quently, but not always, happens, and appre- 
hends the truth in certain, but not in all things. 
Hence, if there is a discipline which foresees 
the future in the arts, as, for instance, in the 
piloting or medical art, this does not all pertain 
to divine foreknowledge. For it conjectures 
the future by certain signs, and these such as 
are not always credible, nor such as have that 
of which they are the signs, connected with 
them with invariable sameness. But with di* 
vine providence, a stable knowledge of the 
future precedes; [and this is attended with] 
an immutable feith suspended from causes ; an 
indissoluble comprehension of all things in all ; 
and a perpetually abiding and invariable know- 
ledge of all things as present and definite. 



CHAP. XXVII. 

Moreover, neither is it sufficient to assert, 
** that nature y art, and the sympathy of things 
in the universe, as if they were the parts of one 
animal, contain premanifestations of certain 



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things with reference to each other ; nor that 
bodies are so prepared^ that there is apresignifi- 
cation of some by others.'* For these things, 
which are very clearly seen, exhibit a certain 
divulsed vestige of divine prediction, in a greater 
or less degree ; since it is not possible for any 
thing to be perfectly destitute of divine divina- 
tion. But 83 in all things the image of good 
exhibits a similitude of divinity ; thus, likewise, 
in all things a certain obscure or more manifest 
image of divine prediction shines forth to the 
view. Nevertheless, no one of these is such as 
the divine species of divination ; nor must the 
one, divine, and unmingled form of it be cha- 
racterized from the many phantasms which 
proceed from it into generation. Nor, if there 
are certain other false and deceitful resem- 
blances, which are still more remote from 
reality, is it fit to adduce these in forming a 
judgment of it. But the divine form or spe- 
cies of divination is to be apprehended accord- 
ing to one intelligible and immutable truth; 
and the mutation which subsists diflferently at 
diflFerent times is to be rejected as unstable 
and unadapted to the Gods. If, therefore, 
that which is truly divination is a thing of this 
kind, i. e. is a divine work, who would not 
blush to ascribe it to nature, which produces 
its eflfects without reason and intellect, as if 



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nature elaborated in us a certain prophetic 
apparatus, and inserted this aptitude in some 
things in a greater but in others in a less de- 
gree? For in those things in which men re- 
ceive auxiliaries from nature in the attainment 
of their proper perfection, in these, also, certain 
aptitudes of nature precede ; but in things in 
which no human work is proposed [to be 
eflFected], in these neither does the end pertain 
to us. And when a certain good, which is 
more ancient than our nature, has a prior 
arrangement, it is not possible in this case that 
a certain natural excellence should become the 
prepared subject of it. For in those things of 
which there are perfections, in these imperfect 
preparations are ingenerated; but both these 
are the habits of men [and not of Gods]. Hence, 
of those things which are not present with us, 
so far as we are men, there will not be a pre- 
parative from nature. There is not, therefore, 
a natural seed in us of divine prediction. If 
some one, however, should in a more general 
way assert, that there is a certain human divi- 
nation, of this there will be a certain physical 
preparation. But with respect to that which 
may be truly denominated divination, and which 
pertains to the Gods, it is not proper to think 
that this is ingrafted by nature. For both 
other things, and also the indefinite, according 



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190 

to the more and the less, are the attendants on 
this. Hence it is separated from divine divi- 
nation, which abides in stable boundaries. On 
this account, also, it is requisite strenuously to 
contend against him who asserts that divination 
originates from us. You likewise adduce clear 
indications of this from the works performed in 
predicting what is future. For you say, " that 
those who invoke [the divinities for the purposes 
of divination^ have about them stones and herbs, 
hind certain sacred bonds, which they also dis- 
solve, open places that are shut, and change the 
deliberate intentions^ of the recipients, so as to 
render them worthy, though they Tvere before 
depraved" All these particulars, therefore, 
signify that the inspiration accedes externally* 
It is requisite, however, not only to preassume 
this, but also to define what the inspiration of 
divine origin is, which produces divine divina- 
tion. For if this is not done, we shall not pre- 
viously know what its peculiarity is, in conse- 
quence of not attributing to it its proper charac- 
ter, and adapting this to it as a certain seal. 
And this, indeed, has been accurately done by 
us a little before. 



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191 

CHAP. XXVIII. 

YoxT adduce, however, as a thing by no means 
to be despised, "tAe artificers of efficacious 
images.'' But I should wonder if these were 
admitted by any one of the theurgists who 
survey the true forms of the Gods. For why 
should any one exchange truly existing beings 
for images, and descend from the first to the last 
of things ? Or do we not know that all things 
effected by an adumbration of this kind, have 
an obscure subsistence, are the phantasms only 
X)£ tiiat which is true, and appear to be good, 
but in no respect are so? Other things, also, 
of this kind that accede, are borne along in a 
flowing condition of being ; but obtain nothing 
genuine, or perfect, or manifest But this is 
evident from the mode of their production : 
for not divinity, but man is the maker of them. 
Nor are they produced from uniform and in- 
telligible essences, but from matter, which is 
assumed for this purpose. What good, there- 
fore, can geiminate from matter, and from the 
material and corporeal - formed powers which 
are in bodies? Or is not that which derives 
its subsistence from human art, more imbecile 
than men themselves, who impart existence to 
it ? By what kind of art, likewise, is this image 



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fashioned 1 For it is said, indeed, to be fashioned 
by demiurgic art ; but this is eflfective of true 
essences, and not of certain images. Hence the 
image-producing art is distant by a great inter- 
val from the seminal production of realities. Be- 
sides, neither does it preserve a certain analogy 
with divine fabrication. For divinity does not 
fabricate all things, either through the celestial 
physical motions, or through a partial matter, 
or through powers thus divided ; but he pro- 
duces the worlds by conceptions, will, and im- 
material forms, and through an eternal and 
supermundane soul. The maker of images, 
however, is said to elaborate them through 
the revolving stars. But the thing does not 
in reality subsist so as it appears to do. For 
since there are certain infinite powers in the 
celestial Gods, the last genus of all the powers 
in them is physical But again, of this power 
one portion being inherent in spermatic rea- 
sons [or productive powers], and prior to these 
reasons being established in immoveable na- 
tures, essentially precedes generation. But 
another portion being inherent in sensible and 
visible motions and powers, and in celestial 
effluxions and qualities, has dominion over the 
whole visible order of things. This last power, 
therefore, in all these rules over the circum- 
terrestrial manifest generation in places about 



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193 

the earth. Many other arts, however, as for 
instance, the medical * and gymnastic, nse this 
power, which has dominion over visible gene- 
ration, and the qualities of the effluxions sent 
from the heavens employ it, and likewise all 
such arts as in their operations communicate 
with nature. And moreover, the image-making 
art attracts a certain very obscure genesiurgic 
portion from the celestial effluxions. 

Such, therefore, as the truth is, such also it 
is requisite to unfold it to others. It must be 
said, then, that the maker of images neither 
uses the celestial circulations, nor the powers 
which are inherent in them, nor those powers 

* Hippocrates was of opinion that physicians ought to be 
skilled in astronomy. And Galen derides those physicians 
who deny that astronomy is necessary to their art See his 
treatise entitled Si quis sit Medicus emidem esse philoso- 
phum. And in lib. viii. cap. ^0, of his treatise De Ingenio 
Sanitatis^ he calls physicians that are ignorant of astronomy 
homicides. But by astronomy here, both Hippocrates and 
Galenintendedtosignifywhatis now called astrology. Roger 
Bacon also, in his Epistle to Pope Clement, says, " Opera 
quae fiunt hie inferius, variantur secundum diversitatem 
coelestium constellationum, ut opera medicinse et alkimise." 
i. e, "The works which are performed in these inferior 
realms are varied according to the diversity of the celestial 
constellations, as, for instance, the works of medicine and 
alchemy." If, however, as Galen says, and doubtless with 
great truth, physicians that are ignorant of this are homi- 
cides, how numerous must the medical homicides be of the 
present age ! 



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"which are naturally established about them ; 
nor, in short, is it possible to come into con- 
tact with them. But he artificially, and not 
theurgically, applies himself to the last effluxions 
which openly proceed from the nature of them, 
about the last part of the universe. For these 
effluxions, I think, being mingled with & partial 
matter, are capable of being changed and trans- 
formed differently at different times. They 
likewise receive the transposition, from some 
things to others, of the powers which are in 
partial natures. The variety, however, of such 
like energies, and the composition of a multi- 
tude of material powers, are not only entirely 
separated from divine fabrication, but also from 
natural production. For nature produces her 
proper works collectively, and at once, and 
accomplishes all things by simple and incom- 
posite energies. Hence it remains that a com- 
;mixture of this kind, about the last and mani- 
fest celestial effluxion, and about the things 
which are moved by a celestial nature, is arti- 
ficial. 



CHAP. XXIX. 



Why, therefore, does the maker of images, who 
effects these things, desert himself, though he 
is better than these images, and consists of 



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things of a more excellent nature, and confide 
in inanimate idols, which are inspired with the 
representation alone of life, contain a renovated 
harmony, and which is externally multiform, 
and are in reality diurnal? Shall we say that 
something genuine and true is inherent in them ? 
Nothing, however, which is fashioned by human 
art is genuine and pure. But you will say, 
that simplicity and uniformity of energy pre- 
dominate in the whole of their composition. 
This is very far from being the case. For the 
idol, according to its visible composition, is 
mingled from all-various and contrary qualities. 
Shall we say then, that a certain pure and per- 
fect power is manifest in them ? By no means. 
For a thing of this kind possesses an adven- 
titious multitude of efiiuxions^ collected from 
many places, and which shows itself to be im- 
becile and evanescent. But if these particu- 
lars, which we have enumerated, are not found 
to take place in images, is stability present 
with them, as it is said to be [by the patrons of 
these images]? By no means, likewise, is this 
the case. For these idols are extinguished 
with much greater rapidity than the images 
which are seen in mirrors. For they are im- 
mediately formed by the accession of fumiga- 
tions from exhaling vapours; but when the 
fumigation is mingled with, and diffused through, 

02 



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the whole air, then the idol is likewise imme- 
diately dissolved, and is not naturally adapted 
to remain for the smallest portion of time. 
Why, therefore, should the man who is a lover 
of truth, pay attention to these useless delu- 
sions? 1, indeed, do not think them to be of 
any value. For if the makers of these images 
know that the fictions about which they are 
busily employed, are nothing more than the 
formations of passive matter, the evil arising 
from an attention to them will be simple. But 
in addition to this, these idol-makers are simi- 
lar to the images in which they confide. And 
if they pay attention to these idols as if they 
were Gods, the absurdity will be so great, as 
neither to be effable by words, nor to be en- 
dured in deeds. For a certain divine splen- 
dour never illuminates a soul of this kind, be- 
cause it is not adapted to be imparted to things 
which are entirely repugnant to it; neither 
have those things which are detained by dark 
phantasms a place for its reception. This de- 
lusive formation, therefore, of phantasms, will 
be conversant with shadows, which are very 
remote from the truth. 



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CHAP. XXX. 

You say, however, " that the makers of images 
observe the motion of the celestial bodies, and can 
tell from the concurrence of what star, with a 
certain star or stars, predictions vnll be true or 
false ; and also whether the things that are per- 
formed will be inanities, or significant and effi- 
caciotcsJ' But neither will these phantasms, 
on this account, possess any thing divine. For 
the last of the things which are in generation 
are moved in conjunction with the celestial 
courses, and are copassive with the effluxions 
which descend from the heavenly bodies. More- 
over, if any one considers these things accu- 
rately, he will find that they demonstrate the 
contrary to what is here asserted. For how is 
it possible that things which are in every re- 
spect mutable, and this with facility, and which 
are ail-variously turned by external motions, 
so as to become inefficacious, or prophetic, or 
significant, or effective, or at different times 
different, should contain in themselves, by par- 
ticipation, any portion, however small, of divine 
power? What then, are the powers which are 
inherent in matter the elements of daemons? 
By no means: for no partial sensible bodies 
generate demons; but much more are these 



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generated and guarded by daemons. Neither is 
any man able to fashion, as by a machine, certain 
forms of daemons ; but, on the contrary, he is 
rather fashioned and fabricated by them, so fex 
as he participates of a sensible body. But 
neither is a certain dasmoniacal multitude gene- 
rated from the elements of sensibles ; since, on 
the contrary, this multitude is simple, and 
energizes uniformly about composite natures. 
Hence, neither will it have sensibles more an- 
cient, or more stable than itself; but being 
itself more excellent than sensibles, both in 
dignity and power, it imparts to them the per- 
manency which they are able to receive. Unless 
indeed, you denominate idols daemons, not 
rightly employing an appellation of this kind. 
For the nature of daemons is one thing, and 
that of idols another. The order of each, like- 
wise, is very diflferent. Moreover, the leader of 
idols is different from the great leader of dae- 
mons. And this, also, you admit. For you 
say, " that no God or dcemon is dravm down hy 
tdolsJ* What, therefore, will be the worth of a 
sacred deed, or of the foreknowledge of what 
is future, if it is entirely destitute of divinity 
and a daemon ? So that it is requisite to know 
what the nature is of this wonder-working art, 
but by no means to use or confide in it. 



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CHAP. XXXI. 

Again, therefore, still worse than this is the 
explanation of sacred operations, which assigns 
as the cause of divination, " a certain genus of 
dasmons, which is naturally fraudulent^ omni- 
form, and various^ and which assumes the appear- 
ance of Gods and dsemonSf and the souls of the 
deceased." I shall, therefore, relate to you, in 
answer to this, what I once heard from the 
prophets of the Chaldeans. 

Such Gods as are truly divinities, are alone 
the givers of good; alone associate with good 
men, and with those that axe purified by the 
sacerdotal art, and from these amputate all 
vice, and every passion. When these, also, 
impart their light, that which is evil, and at the 
same time dsemoniacal, vanishes from before 
more excellent natures, in the same manner as 
darkness when light is present; nor is it able 
to disturb theurgists in the smallest degree, 
who receive from this light every virtue, obtain 
worthy manners, become orderly and elegant 
in their actions, are liberated from passions, 
and purified from every disorderly motion, and 
from atheistical and unholy conduct. But 
those who are themselves flagitious, and who 
leap, as it were, to things of a divine nature in 



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an illegal and disorderly manner, these, through 
the imbecility of their proper energy, or through 
indigence of inherent power, are not able to 
associate with the Gods. Because, likewise, 
they are excluded, through certain defilements, 
from an association with pure spirits, they be- 
come connected with evil spirits, are filled 
from them with the worst kind of inspiration, 
are rendered depraved and unholy, become 
replete with intemperate pleasures, and every 
kind of vice, are emulous of manners foreign 
to the Gods, and, in short, become similar to 
the depraved daemons, with whom they are 
connascent. These, therefore, being full of 
passions and vice, attract to themselves, through 
alliance, depraved spirits, and are excited by 
them to every kind of iniquity. They are also 
increased in wickedness by each other, like a 
circle conjoining the beginning to the end, and 
similarly making an equal compensation. Hence 
deeds which are the nefarious offences of im- 
piety, which are introduced into sacred works 
in a disorderly manner, and which are also 
confusedly performed by those who betake 
themselves to such works, and at one time, as 
it seems, cause one divinity to be present in- 
stead of another, and again, introduce depraved 
daemons instead of Gods, whom they call equal 
to the Gods (avrideovg) — such deeds as these you 



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should never adduce in a discourse concerning 
sacerdotal divination. For good is more con- 
trary to evil than to that which is not good. 
As, therefore, the sacrilegious are in the most 
eminent degree hostile to the religious cultiva- 
tion of the Gods; thus, also, those who are 
conversant with daemons who are fraudulent, 
and the causes of intemperance, are undoubt- 
edly hostile to theurgists. For from these 
every depraved spirit departs, and when they 
are present, is entirely subverted. Every vice, 
too, and every passion, are by these perfectly 
amputated : for a pure participation of good is 
present with the pure, and they are supemally 
filled with truth from a divine fire. These, 
therefore, suffer no impediment from evil spirits, 
nor are these spirits any obstacles to the goods 
of their souls. Nor are theurgists disturbed by 
pride, or flattery, or the enjoyment of exhala- 
tions, or any violence ; but all these, as if 
struck by lightning, yield and recede, without 
touching the theurgist, or being able to approach 
to them. Hence this genus of divination is 
undefiled and sacerdotal; and is truly divine. 
This, also, does not, as you say it does, require 
me, or any other as an arbiter, in order that I 
may prefer it to a multitude of other things ; 
but it is itself exempt from all things, is super- 
natural, and has an eternal preexistence, neither 



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receiving a certain opposition, nor a certain 
transcendency, which has a prearrangement in 
many things, because it is of itself liberated, 
and uniformly precedes all things. And to 
this it is requisite that you, and every one who 
is a genuine lover of the Gods, should give him- 
self wholly ; since by this mean irreprehensible 
truth will be obtained in divinations, and per- 
fect virtue in souls; and through both these, 
an ascent will be afforded to theurgists to in- 
telligible fire, which ought to be preestablished 
as the end of all foreknowledge, and of every 
theurgic operation. Hence you in vain adduce 
the opinion of those who think that divination 
is effected by an evil daemon, since these do 
not deserve to be mentioned in speculations 
concerning the Gods. At the same time, like- 
wise, they are ignorant of the means of distin- 
guishing truth from falsehood, because they are 
from the beginning nourished in darkness, and 
are wholly incapable of knowing the principles 
from which these are produced. Here, there- 
fore, we shall terminate our discussion concern- 
ing the mode of divination. 



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SECTION IV. 



CHAP. I. 

Let us then, in the next place, consider thd 
opposing arguments, what they are, and what 
reason they possess. And if we should dis- 
cuss some things a little more abundantly, in 
consequence of speaking freely and at leisure, 
it is requisite that you should promptly attend 
to, and endiire what, we say. For it is neces- 
sary that great labour should be bestowed on 
the greatest disciplines, and that they should 
be accurately explored for a long time, if you 
intend to know them perfectly. Do you, there- 
fore, conformably to the present hypothesis, 
propose the arguments which occasion the 
doubt, and I will answer you. Say then, ''it 
very much perplexes me to understand how su- 
perior beings, when invoked, are commanded by 
those that invoke them, as if they were their in- 
feriors^ But I will unfold to you the whole 
division, which is worthy of regard, concerning 
the powers that are invoked ; from which you 
will be able clearly to define what is possible 



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and what is impossible, in the subjects of your 
investigation. For the Gods, indeed, and the 
natures that are more excellent than we, through 
the wish of what is beautiful, and from an un- 
envying and exuberant fulness of good, benevo- 
lently impart to those that are worthy, such 
things as are fit for them, commiserating the 
labours of sacerdotal men, but being delighted 
with those that they have begotten, nourished, 
and instructed. But the middle genera are the 
inspective guardians of judgment. These in- 
form us what ought to be done, and fi'om what 
it is fit to abstain. They also give assistance 
to just works, but impede such as are unjust ; 
and as many endeavour to take away unjustly 
the property of others, or basely to injure or 
destroy some one, they cause these to suffer 
the same things as they have done to others. 
But there is, likewise, another most irrational 
genus of daemons,* which is without judgment, 
and is allotted only one power, through an 
arrangement by which each of these daemons 
presides over one work alone. As therefore, 
it is the province of a sword to cut, and to do 

* According to Proclus, in Alcibiad. Prior, there are three 
orders of daemons^ the first of which are more intellectual, 
the second are of a more rational nature, and the thirds of 
which lamblichus is now speakings are various, more irra- 
tional, and more material. 



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nothing else than this, thus also of the spirits 
which are distributed in the universe, accord- 
ing to the partible necessity of nature, one 
kind divides, but another collects, things which 
are generated. This, however, is known from 
the phsenomena. For the Charonean* spira- 
cles, as they are called, emit from themselves 
a certain spirit, which is able to corrupt pro- 
miscuously every thing that falls into them. 
Thus, therefore, of certain invisible spirits, each 
is allotted a different power, and is alone 
adapted to do that which it is ordained to per- 
form. He, therefore, who turns from their 
natural course things which contribute to the 
universe in an orderly manner, and illegiti- 
mately performs a certain thing, in this case 
receives the injury arising from that which he 
uses badly. This, however, pertains to another 
mode of discussion. 

♦ Charonea is a country of Asia Minor^ bordering on the 
river Meander ; and in it there are spiracles which exhale a 
foul odour. According to Pliny, there are places of this 
kind in Italy, in the country of Puteoli, now Puzzulo. In 
Amsanctus, also, a place in the middle of Italy, in the coun- 
try of the Sanmites, there were sulphureous waters, the 
steams of which were so pestilential, that they killed all who 
came near them. Hence Cicero, in lib. i. De Divin. " Quid 
enim ? Non videmus, quam sint varia terrarum genera ? Ex 
quibus et mortifera qusedam pars est, ut et Amsancti in Hir- 
pinis, et in Asia Plutonia." 



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CHAP. II. 

BxTT we sometimes see that take place which 
is now proposed to be considered. For it 
happens that spirits are commanded [to do this 
or that] who do not use a reason of their own, 
and have not the principle of judgment Nor 
does this occur irrationally. For our dianoia 
naturally possessing the power of reasoning 
about and judging of things as they are, and 
comprehending in itself many powers of life, is 
accustomed to command the most irrational 
spirits, and such as derive their perfection from 
one energy alone. Hence, it invokes these as 
more excellent natures, because it endeavours 
to attract to particulars from the whole world, 
in which we are contained, things which con- 
tribute to wholes.* And it commands them 
as inferior natures, because frequently certain 
parts of things in the world [such as our reason- 
ing power] are more pure and perfect than 
things which extend themselves to the whole 
world. Thus, for instance, if one thing is in- 
tellectual [as is the case with our dianoia], but 
another is wholly inanimate or physical, then 

* And these irrational spirits, so far as they contribute to 
wholes, are more excellent than we are, though through be^ 
ing irrational they are inferior to us. 



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that which proceeds to a less extent has a 
more principal power than that which is more 
extended, though the former falls far short of 
the latter in magnitude and multitude of domi- 
nation. For these things, also, another reason 
may be assigned, and which is as follows : in 
all theurgical operations the priest sustains a 
twofold character; one, indeed, as man, and 
which preserves the order possessed by our 
nature in the universe ; hut the other, which is 
corroborated by divine signs, and through these 
is conjoined to more excellent natures, and is 
elevated to their order by an elegant circum- 
duction, this is deservedly capable of being 
surrounded with the external form of the Gods. 
Conformably, therefore, to a difference of this 
kind, the priest very properly invokes, as more 
excellent natures, the powers derived from the 
universe, so far as he who invokes is a man ; 
and again, he commands these powers, because 
.through arcane symbols, he, in a certain respect, 
is invested with the sacred form of the Gods. 



CHAP. III. 



Dissolving, however, the doubts in a way still 
more true, we think it requisite, in invoking 
superior natures, to take away the evocations 



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which appear to be directed to them as to men, 
and also the mandates in the performance of 
works, which are given with great earnestness. 
For if the communion of concordant friend- 
ship, and a certain indissoluble connexion of 
union, are the bonds of sacerdotal operations, 
in order that these operations may be truly 
divine, and may transcend every common action 
known to men, no human work will be adapted 
to them ; nor will the invocations of the priest 
resemble the manner in which we draw to 
ourselves things that are distant; nor are his 
mandates directed as to things separated from 
him, in the way in which we transfer one thing 
from others. But the energy of divine fire 
shines forth voluntarily, and in common, and 
being self-invoked and self-energetic, energizes 
through all things with invariable sameness, 
both through the natures which impart, and 
those that are able to receive, its light This 
mode of solution, therefore, is far superior, 
which does not suppose that divine works are 
effected through contrariety, or discrepance, in 
the way in which generated natures are usually 
produced ; but asserts that every such work is 
rightly accomplished through sameness, union, 
and consent. Hence, if we separate from each 
other that which invokes and that which is in- 
voked, that which commands and that which is 



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commanded, that which is more and that which 
is less excellent, we shall, in a certain respect, 
transfer the contrariety of generations to the 
unbegotten goods of the Gods. But if we despise 
all such things, as it is just we should, as of an 
earth-bom nature, and ascribe that which is 
common and simple, as being 'more honourable, 
to the powers who transcend the variety which 
is in the realms of generation, the first hypothe- 
sis of these questions will be immediately sub- 
verted, so that no reasonable doubt concerning 
them will be left. 



CHAP. IV. 



What then shall we say concerning the next 
inquiry to this, viz. " why the powers who are 
invoked think it requisite that he who worships 
them should hejust^ hut they when called upon to 
act unjustly do not refuse so to act ? " To this I 
reply, that I am dubious with respect to what 
you call acting justly, and am of opinion that 
what appears to us to be an accurate definition 
of justice does not also appear to be so to the 
Gods. For we, looking to that which is most 
brief, direct our attention to things present, 
and to this momentary life, and the manner in 
which it subsists. But the powers that are 



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210 

superior to us know the whole life of the soul, 
and all its former lives ; and, in consequence 
of this, if they inflict a certain punishment 
from the prayer of those that invoke them, they 
do not inflict it without justice, but looking to 
the offences committed by souls in former 
lives;* which men not perceiving think that 
they unjustly fall into the calamities which 
they suffer. 



CHAP. V. 



The multitude, also, are accustomed to doubt 
in common the very same thing concerning 
providence, viz. why certain persons are afflicted 
undeservedly, as they have not done any thing 
unjustly prior to their being thus afflicted. 
For neither here is it possible to understand 
[perfectly] what the soul is, and its whole life, 
how many offences it has committed in former 
lives, and whether it now suffers from its former 
guilt. In this life, also, many unjust actions 
are concealed from human knowledge, but are 
known to the Gods, since neither is the same 

* See the justice of providence in this respect most admir- 
ably defended by Plotinus^ in the first of his treatises on 
Providence, which treatise forms one of the five books of 
Plotinus translated by me, in 8vo. 1794?. 



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211 

scope of justice proposed to them as to men. 
For men, indeed, define justice to be the soul's 
performance of its own proper business,* and 
the distribution of desert, conformably to the 
established laws, and the prevailing polity. 
But the Gods, looking to the whole orderly 
arrangement of the world, and to the sub- 
serviency of souls to the Gods, form a judg- 
ment of what is just. Hence the judgment of 
jxist actions with the Gods is different from 
what it is with us. Nor is it wonderful, if we 
are unable, in most things, to arrive at the su- 
preme and most perfect judgment of more ex- 
cellent natures. What also hinders, but that 
to each thing by itself, and in conjunction with 
the whole alliance of souls, justice may in a 
very transcendent manner be decreed by the 
Gods ? For if a communion of the same nature 
in souls, both when they are in and when they 
are out of bodies, produces a certain identical 
connexion and common order with the life of 
the world, it is likewise necessary that a fulfil- 
ment of justice should be required by wholes, 
and especially when the magnitude of the un- 
just deeds antecedently committed by one 
soul transcends the infliction of one punish- 



* In the original, t»;v iBiav rYjs V^X^s avrovpayiaVf which 
Gale very inadequately translates propnum animee officiwn, 

P 2 



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212 

ment due to the offences. But if any one should 
add other definitions^ through which he can 
show that what is just subsists with the Gods 
in a way different from that in which it is 
known by us, from these also bur design will 
be facilitated. For me, however, the before- 
mentioned canons are alone sufficient for the 
purpose of manifesting the universal genus, 
and which comprehends every thing pertaining 
to the medicinal punishments inflicted by di- 
vine justice. 



CHAP. VI. 



In order, therefore, that from an abundance of 
arguments we may contend against the objec- 
tion which is now adduced, we will grant, if 
you please, the contrary to what we have 
asserted, viz. that certain unjust things are 
performed in this business of invocations. That 
the Gods, however, are not to be accused as 
the causes of these is immediately manifest. 
For those that are good are the causes of good ; 
and the Gods possess good essentially. They 
do nothing, therefore, that is unjust. Hence 
other causes of guilty deeds must be investi- 
gated. And if we are not able to discover 
these causes, it is not proper to throw away 



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213 

the true conception respecting the Gods, nor 
on account of the doubts whether these unjust 
deeds are performed, and how they are effected, 
to depart from notions concerning the Gods 
which are truly clear. For it is much better 
to acknowledge the insufficiency of our power 
to explain how unjust actions are perpetrated, 
than to admit any thing impossible and false 
respecting the Gods ; since all the Greeks and 
Barbarians truly opine the contrary to be the 
case with divine natures. After this manner, 
therefore, the truth respecting these particulars 
subsists*. 



CHAP. VII. 



Moreover, it is necessary to add the causes 
whence evils* sometimes arise, and to show 
how many and of what kind they are. For the 
form of them is not simple ; but, being various, 
is the leader of the generation of various evils. 
For if what we a little before said, concerning 
images and evil daemons, who assume the ap- 
pearance of Gods and good daemons, is true, an 
abundant evil-producing tribe, about which a 

* See my translation of Proclus on the Subsistence of 
Evil, at the end of my translation of his six books on the 
Theology of Plato. 



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214 

contrariety of this kind usually happens, will 
from hence appear to flow. For cm evil dosmon 
requires that his worshipper should he just^ he- 
caitse he assumes the appearance of one helong- 
ing to the divine genus ; hut he is suhservient to 
what is unjust, because he is depraved. The 
same thing, likewise, that is said of good and 
evil may be asserted of the true and the false. 
As, therefore, in divinations we attribute true 
predictions to the Gods alone, but when we 
detect any falsehood in predictions we refer 
this to another genus of cause, viz. that of 
daemons ; thus, also, in things just and unjust, 
the beautiful and the just are to be alone 
ascribed to Gods and good daemons ; but such 
daemons as are naturally depraved, perpetrate 
what is unjust and base. And that, indeed, 
which consents and accords with itself, and 
always subsists with invariable sameness, per- 
tains to more excellent natures ; but that which 
is hostile to itself, which is discordant, and 
never the same, is the peculiarity in the most 
eminent degree of daemoniacal dissension, about 
which it is not at all wonderful that things of 
an opposing nature should subsist ; but perhaps 
the very contrary, that this should not be the 
case, would be more wonderful. 



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CHAP. VIIL 

We may, however, beginning from another 
hypothesis, demonstrate the same thing. We 
must admit that the corporeal parts of the 
universe are neither sluggish nor destitute of 
power, but as much as they excel our concerns 
in perfection, beauty, and magnitude, by so 
much also is the power which is present with 
them greater. Each, likewise, by itself is capa- 
ble of effecting different things, and produces 
certain different energies. They are also capa- 
ble of effecting things much more numerous on 
each other. And besides this, a certain multi- 
form production extends to parts from wholes ; 
partly from sympathy, through similitude of 
powers, and partly from the aptitude of the 
agent to the patient. If, therefore, certain evils 
and destructions happen to parts, they are 
salutary and good as with reference to wholes 
and the harmony of the universe, but to parts 
they introduce a necessary corruption, either 
from not being able to bear the energies of 
wholes, or from a certain other commixture and 
temperament of their own imbecility, or, in the 
third place, from the privation of symmetry in 
the parts to each other. 



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216 



CHAR IX* 

After the body of the universe, also, many- 
things are generated by the nature of it. For 
the concord of similars, and the contrariety of 
dissimilars, effect not a few things. Farther 
still, the assemblage of many things into the 
one animal of the universe, and the powers in 
the world, whatever the number and quality of 
them may be, effect, in short, one thing in 
wholes and another in parts, on account of the 
divided imbecility of parts. Thus, for instance, 
the friendship, love, and contention which sub- 
sist in energy in the universe, become passions 
in the partial natures by which they are par- 
ticipated. Those things, likewise, that are 
preestablished in forms and pure reasons in 
the nature of wholes, participate of a certain 
material indigence, and privation of morphea in 
things which subsist according to a part. . And 
things which are conjoined to each other in 
wholes are separated in parts. Hence partible 
natures, which participate of wholes in con- 
junction with matter, degenerate from them in 
all things, and also from what is beautiful and 
perfect. But some parts are corrupted, in order 
that wholes may be preserved in a condition 



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conformable to nature. Sometimes, likewise, 
parts are compressed and weighed down, though 
at the same time wholes remain impassive to a 
molestation of this kind. 



CHAP. X. 



Wb shall collect, therefore, what happens from 
these conclusions. For if certain invocators 
employ the physical or corporeal powers* of 
the universe, an involuntary gift of energy 
[from these powers], and which is without vice, 
takes place. He, likewise, who uses this gift 
[sometimes] perverts it to things of a contrary 
nature, and to base purposes. And the gift, 
indeed, is moved contrarily together with the 
passions, and sympathetically through simili- 
tude ; but he who uses the thing which is im- 
parted, deliberately draws it, contrary to justice, 
to what is evil and base. And the gift, indeed, 
causes things which are most remote to co- 
operate through the one harmony of the world. 
But if some one understanding this to be the 
case should iniquitously endeavour to draw 
certain portions of the universe to other parts, 

* See cap. 40, 41, 42, of Eunead iv. lib. iv. of Plotinus, 
from which the doctrine of this chapter is derived. 



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these parts are not the cause of the evil that 
ensues; but the audacity of men, and the 
transgression of the order in the world, pervert 
things that are beautiful and legal. Hence 
neither do the Gods effect what appears to be 
base, but this is accomplished by the natures 
and bodies that proceed from them; nor do 
these very natures and bodies impart improbity 
from themselves, as it is thought they do ; but 
they send their proper effluxions to places about 
the earth, for the salvation of wholes, and those 
who receive them transmute them by their 
commixture and perversion, and transfer what 
is given to a purpose different from that for 
which it was imparted. From all these par- 
ticulars, therefore, it is demonstrated that a 
divine nature is not the cause of evils and un- 
just deeds. 



CHAP. XI, 



Moreover, you inquire, and at the same time 
doubt, *' how it comes to pass that the Gods do 
not hear him who invokes them, if he is impure 
from venereal connexions ; hut, at the same time, 
they do not refuse to lead any one to illegal 
ven&ryr You have, indeed, a clear solution 
of these things from what has been before said; 



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if they are done contrary to [hnman] laws, but 
are effected according to another order and 
cause more excellent than laws. Or if it hap- 
pens that things of this kind are conformable 
to the mundane harmony and friendship, yet 
produce a conflict in parts through a certain 
sympathy. Or if the communication of good, 
which is beautifully imparted, is perverted by 
those that receive it to the contrary. 



CHAP. XII. 



It is necessary, however, to discuss these 
things particularly, and to show how they sub- 
sist, and what reason they possess. It is requi- 
site, therefore, to understand that the universe 
is one animal ; and that the parts in it are, in- 
deed, separated by places, but through the 
possession of one nature hasten to each other.* 
The whole collective power, however, and the 
cause of mixture, spontaneously draws the 

♦ Agreeably to this, Plotinus, also, in Eunead iv. lib. iv. 
cap. 32, says, irav rovre to €v, Kai cos fwov cv fwov T€ ovroSy 
Kai €is €v TfAowTOs, ovSfv ovTw woppdi TOTTov (t)s fifj ryyvs 
«vat ry tov evos (Iwov wpos ro <rvfi'7raO€iv <f>va'€i, t. e. ''This 
universe is one, and is as one animal. But being an animal 
and completely effecting one thing, nothing in it is so distant 
in place as not to be near to the nature of the one animal, 
on account of its S3maipathy with the whole of itself." 



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220 

parts to a mingling with each other. But it is 
also possible for this spontaneous attraction to 
be excited and extended by art more than is 
fit. The cause itself, therefore^ of this mixture 
extending from itself to the whole world, is 
good, and the source of plenitude; has the 
power of harmonically procuring communion, 
consent, and symmetry ; and inserts, by union, 
the indissoluble principle of love, which prin- 
ciple retains and preserves both things that 
are in existence, and such as are becoming 
to be. But in the parts, through their sepa- 
ration from each other and from wholes, and 
because, from their own proper nature, they 
are imperfect, indigent, and imbecile, their 
mutual connection is accompanied with pas- 
sion; by which, in most of them, desire and 
a connascent appetite are inherent. Art * there- 

* This art is no other than magic, of which the following 
account^ from a very rare Greek manuscript of Psellus, On 
Dcemons according to the Dogmas of the Greeks, will, I 
doubt not, be acceptable to the reader, as it illustrates what 
is here said by lamblichus, and shows that magic is not an 
empty name, but possesses a real power, though at present 
this art seems to be totally lost Fidnus published some 
extracts from this manuscript in Latin ; but Gale does not 
appear to have had it in his possession. H yoo^Tfia & c^-i 'r^yyq 
Tis v€pi T0V9 <vvAov9 ictti \Oovi.ov% BaLfJLOvas <f>avTa(rio<rK(nrova'a 
TOis eiroTTTttis Ttt TOVTwv €iB<i}\a, Kai rovs ftcv ioairep €^ aSov 
avayoixra, rovs S€ v^j/oOtv Karayovcra, Kai tovtovs KaKOir*- 
KOvs» Kai €iSia\a arra v^tyiycrt </>avra(r/Aara tois Oefapois rtav 



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fore, perceiving this innate desire thus im- 
planted by nature, and distributed about it 

TOVTWV. Kai TOIS /A€V pCV/WtTa TlVtt €K€l6€V KVfAaiVOVTa CITO- 

(jyvqa-f rois Be Beo-fiiav av€<r€ts icai rpvfJMS, Kai ^(aptras caray- 
ycAXerat. CTraycrai Se ras roiavras fivva/uis, Kai ocr/juuri icai 
firaxryuaxnv, tj Se fmyeia woXvSvvafiov t* X/^f"* '''^^^ EXXt;o-tv 
eSoJc. ix€piSa yovv ctvai ravnjv (jxixriv co-^an^v rrys upariKrjs 
errn^fiYjs. avt^vcvotxra yap twv viro njv o-cXiyn^v TravTwv 
TT^v T€ ovirav Kai ffAxriv^ Kai Swafiiv Kai woiorryra, Xeyfa 
Be ^oi)(€i(av Kai twv tovtwv /upeScov, ^okov, TravToSaTrwv <^vTto)V, 
icat T(i>v €vr€v0€v KafyiTiov, Atdcov, jSoraviav, Kai airXios eiveiv, 
vavTOs irfKLyfiaros, viro^ao'iv T€ Kai Bwafxiv, eirrevdev apa 
Ttt eavrrjs €pya(€Tai, ayakfiara t€ v^jyi^a-iv vyctas irepivovq- 
Ttica, Kai (ryripjaTa vouirai vavroBaira' Kai voa-oiroia &/ii- 
ovprfqpjaTa erepa, Kai aeroi ficv, Kai BpaKovres, piwrifMi 
avTots Trpos vyciav viro^co-is' atXovpoi §€ Kai kvvcs, xai 
KopaK€s aypvTTvqriKa (rvfipoXa. Krfpos Be Kai vrjKos eis rag 
T(DV fxopKav ODfJLwXxureis irapaXap,pavovrai, <f>avTa(€i Be iroXr 
XaKis, Kai TTVpos ovpavvov €v6oo-€is, Kai BiafxeiBuiHri cirt tov- 
Tcov ayaX/Aara' irvpC Be avTOfiaT(^ XafxiraBes avawrovrai, 
i, e. "Goeteia, or witchcraft, is a certain art respecting 
material and terrestrial daemons^ whose images it causes to 
become visible to the spectators of this art. And some of 
these daemons it leads up, as it were from Hades, but others 
it draws down from on high ; and these, too, such as are of 
an evil species. This art, therefore, causes certain phan- 
tastic images to appear before the spectators. And before 
the eyes of some, indeed, it pours exuberant streams ; but to 
others it promises freedom from bonds, delicacies, and fa- 
vours. They draw down, too, powers of this kind by songs 
and incantations. But magic, according to the Greeks, is a 
thing of a very powerful nature. For they say that this 
forms the last part of the sacerdotal science. Magic, indeed, 
investigates the nature, power, and quality of every thing 
sublunary; viz, of the elements, and their parts, of animals, 
all various plants and their fruits, of stones, and herbs : and 



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222 

(art itself also being multiformly distributed 
about nature), variously attracts and derives it 
as through a channel Hence it transfers that 
which in itself is orderly and arranged into the 
privation of order, and fills that which is beau- 
tiful and commensurate with deformity. But 
the venerable end in each particular thing, 
which is connascent with union, it transfers to 
another indecorous plenitude, which is an 

in short, it explores the essence and power of eveiy thing. 
From hence, therefore, it produces its effects. And it forms 
statues which procure health, makes all various figures, and 
things which become the instruments of disease. It asserts, 
too, that eagles and dragons contribute to health ; but that 
cats, dogs, and crows are symbols of vigilance, to which, 
therefore, they contribute. But for the fashioning of certain 
parts wax and clay are used. Often, too, celestial fire is 
made to appear through magic ; and then statues laugh, and 
lamps are spontaneously enkindled." 

This curious passage throws light on the following extract 
from the first book of the Metaphorsis of Apuleius : " Magico 
susurranime, amnes agiles reverti, mare pigrum colligari, 
ventos inanimes expirare, solem inhiberi, lunam despumari, 
Stellas evelli, diem toUi, noctem teneri" i.,e, "By magical 
incantation rapid rivers may be made to run back to their 
fountains, the sea be congealed, winds become destitute of 
spirit, the sun be held back in his course, the moon be forced 
to scatter her foam, the stars be torn from their orbits, the 
day be taken away, and the night be detained." For it may 
be inferred from Psellus, that witches formerly were able to 
cause the appearance of all this to take place. It must also 
be observed, that this MS. of Psellus On Dcenums forms no 
part of his treatise On the Energy of Dasmons, published by 
Gaulminus ; for it never was published. 



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223 

assemblage of different things according to a 
common passion. It likewise imparts a matter 
from itself, which is nnadapted to the whole 
generation of what is beautful, either because 
it does not entirely receive it, or because it 
transfers it to other things. It also mingles 
many different physical powers, which it ma- 
nages as it pleases for the purposes of genera- 
tion. Hence we have universally shown, that 
the apparatus of a venereal connexion of this 
kind proceeds from a certain human art, and 
not from a certain daemoniacal or divine ne- 
cessity. 



CHAP. XIII. 



Consider, therefore, also another genus of 
causes ; how a stone or a herb frequently 
possess from themselves a nature comiptive, or 
again collective of generated natures. For this 
is not only the case with these, but this physical 
power is also in greater natures and greater 
things, which those who are not able to infer by 
a reasoning process, will perhaps transfer the 
works and energies of nature to more excellent 
beings [i. e. to Gods, angels, and daemons]. 
Now, therefore, it is acknowledged that the 
tribe of evil daemons has a very extended 



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224 

power in generation^ in human affairs, and in 
such things as subsist about the earth. Hence, 
why is it wonderful that a tribe of this kind 
should effect such works as these? For every 
man is not able to distinguish a good from an 
evil daemon, or by what peculiarities the^ one is 
separated from the other. Hence those, who 
are not able to perceive the difference between 
the two, absurdly reason concerning the cause 
of them, and refer this cause to genera superior 
to nature and the dsemoniacal order. If, also, 
certain powers of a partial soul are assumed in 
order to effect these things, whether such a soul 
is detained in body, or has left the testaceous 
and terrestrial body, but wanders about the 
places of generation in a turbid and humid 
spirit ; this, indeed, will be a true opinion, but 
separates the cause of these things at the greatest 
distance from more excellent natures. By no 
means, therefore, is that which is divine, or any 
good daemon, subservient to the illegal desires 
of men in venereal concerns. For of these 
things there are many other causes. 



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225 



SECTION V. 



CHAP. I. 

The doubt mentioned by you in the next place, 
is, as I may say, an inquiry which is made in 
common both by the learned and the unlearned, 
I mean concerning sacrifices, '' what' utility or 
power they possess in the universe^ and ivith the 
Gods, and on what account they are performed, 
appropriately indeed to the powers who are 
honoured by them^ but usefully to those by whom 
the gifts are offered!^ In the same place, also, 
another objection occurs, viz. ^'that the inter- 
preters of prophecies and oracles ought to abstain 
from animals, lest the Gods should be polluted 
by the vapours arising from them. For this is 
contrary to the assertion, that the Gods are 
especially allured by the vapours of animals.'^ 



CHAP. II. 



The hostile opposition, therefore, in the things 
that are now proposed, may be easily dissolved 
by demonstrating the dignity of wholes with 

Q 



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226 

respect to parts, and by recaUing to your 
recollection the exempt transcendency of the 
Gods above men. But what I mean is this, 
that the soul, which ranks as a whole, presides 
over all the mundane body,* and that the 

* Hence lamblichus (apud Stob. Eelog. Phys. p. 114), 
says, Ovx ^ avrq c^i irauriav \frv)((tov KOiv(ovia vpos ra fnayMra, 
aX,X rj fjL€v okri <ixnr€p UXtaTivtjf 8ok€i, vpofrtov eavry ro imfia 
€')(€i €V cavr|y, aXX ovk avny irpoo'euri T(f (nafiarij ovSc 7r€pi€\€' 
rat vn* avrov, ai 8€ fi€pL^ai Trpoa'€p\ovTai rois ciapMri, Kai 
Tiav (riaitariav yty voKrai. t. e. " There is not the same com- 
munion of all souls with bodies ; but the soul which ranks as 
a whole (as it also appeared to Plotinus), approaching to 
itself, contains body in itself, but does not itself approach to 
body, nor is comprehended by it. Partible souls, however, 
accede to bodies, and give themselves up to them." 

Conformably to this Porph3ny also, in his K^pyuan vpos 
ra vorjra, No. SO, says, "No whole and perfect essence is 
converted to its own progeny ; but all perfect natures are led 
back to the causes by which they were generated, even as 
far as to the mundane body. For this body, being perfect, 
is elevated to the mundane soul which is intellectual, and 
through this is circularly moved. But the soul of this body 
is elevated to intellect, and intellect to that which is first. 
All things, therefore, extend themselves to this, beginning 
from that which is last, according to the peculiar ability of 
each. But the reduction to that which is first is either 
proximate or remote. Hence these are not only said to 
aspire after divinity, but also to enjoy him as far as they are 
able. But in partial natures, and which are able to verge to 
many things, a conversion to their progeny belongs. Hence 
in these guilt, in these disgraceful perfidy, is found. Matter, 
therefore, defiles these, because they decline to it, at the 
same time that they possess the power of converting them- 
selves to a divine nature." 



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227 

celestial Gods ascend, as into a vehicle, into a 
celestial body, neither receiving any injury 
from thence, nor any impediment in their in- 
tellections. But to a partial soul, the com- 
munion with body is noxious in both these 
respects. If, therefore, some one perceiving 
this, should nevertheless introduce such a doubt 
as the following, that if the body is a bond to 
OUT soul, it will also be a bond to the soul of 
the universe, and that if a partial soul is con- 
verted to the body on account of generation, in 
a similar manner the power of the Gods is con- 
verted to generation ; in answer to this every 
one may reply, that he who thus doubts does 
not know how much superior beings transcend 
men, and wholes parts. Since, therefore, the 
objections pertain to things different from each 
other, they do not produce any ambiguity. 



CHAP. III. 

Here, therefore, the same reasoning is like- 
wise sufficient. For with us the enjoyment of 
bodies which once were united to soul, im- 
presses in us heaviness and defilement, ingene- 
rates in us voluptuousness, and produces many 
other diseases in the soul. But with the Gods, 
and with mundane a^d total causes, this is by 

Q2 



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228 

no means the case. For the exhalation which 
ascends after a divine manner from animals 
that axe sacrificed, as it is comprehended by, 
and does not comprehend, the Gods, and as it 
is also connected with the universe, but does 
not conjoin wholes and the Gods to itself, is in 
consequence of this coadapted to superior be- 
ings and to total causes, but does not restrain 
them and coadapt them to itself. 



CHAP. IV. 



Nor is that which so greatly disturbs you, and 
for which you so strenuously contend, attended 
with any difficulty, I mean abstinence from 
animals,* if it is rightly understood. For those 
who worship the Gods do not abstain from ani- 
mals, lest the Gods should be defiled by the 
vapours arising from them. For what exhala- 
tion from bodies can approach those who, be- 
fore any thing material can come into contact 
with their power, intangibly amputate matter? 
Nor is it the power of the Gods only that 
abolishes all bodies, and causes them to vanish, 

* lamblichus here alludes to the excellent treatise of Por- 
phyry, w€pi rris Tft)v €/t^x^v airox»7S, On Abstinence from 
Animal Food, from which work the English reader will find 
several admirable extracts in one of the Introductory Disser- 
tations prefixed to my translation of Proclus on Euclid. 



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229 

without any approximation to them; but a 
celestial body, also, is unmingled with all the 
material elements ; * nor does it receive into 
itself any thing extraneous, nor impart any 
portion of itself to things of a foreign nature. 
How, therefore, can any terrestrial vapour, 
which is not elevated five stadia from the earth 
before it again flows down to the earth, either 
nourish a circulating and immaterial body, or, 
in short, produce in it a certain defilement, or 
any other passion? For it is acknowledged 
that an etherial body is void of all contrariety, 
is liberated from all mutation, is entirely pure 
from the possibility of being transmuted into 
any thing else, and is perfectly free from a ten- 
dency to, and from the middle, because it is 
either without any tendency, or is convolved 
in a circle. Hence, it is not possible that 
bodies, which consist of diflferent powers and 
motions, which are ail-variously changed, and 
are moved either upwards or downwards, 
should have any communion of nature or power 
with celestial bodies, or that any exhalation of 
the former should be mingled with the latter. 
As the former, therefore, are entirely separated 

* A celestial body, as is beautifully shown by Proclus in 
Tim. lib. iii. contains the summits of all the elements, but is 
characterized by vivific unbuming fire ; so that, in short, it 
is vitalized extension. 



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230 

from the latter, they will not eflFect any thing in 
them. For celestial bodies being unbegotten, 
are not capable of receiving any mutation from 
generated natures. How, therefore, can the 
Gods be defiled by such like vapours, who 
suddenly, as I may say, at one stroke, ampu- 
tate the vapours ascending from all matter and 
material bodies ? 

This, therefore, it is not fit to suspect of the 
Gods [viz. that they can be defiled by vapours]; 
but it is much more requisite to think that 
things of this kind are foreign to us and to our 
nature. For things which are divided, and 
also material and kindred natures, are able to 
have a certain communion with each other in 
acting and suffering; but things which are 
essentially different, and such as are entirely 
transcendent, and which employ other natures 
and powers, these cannot act on or receive any 
thing from each other. The defilement, there- 
fore, produced by material natures, Mis on 
things which are detained by a material body ; 
and from these it is necessary those should be 
purified who are capable of being defiled by 
matter. But how can those beings be defiled 
by material essences who neither have a divisi- 
ble nature nor possess the power of receiving 
in themselves the passions of matter? How, 
likewise, can divinity, who has nothing in com- 



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231 

mon with us, in consequence of antecedently 
existing superior to human imbecility, be pol- 
luted by my passions, or by those of any other 
man? 

Neither of these, therefore, at all pertains to 
the Gods ; neither our being filled with mate- 
rial bodies ; (for there is nothing, in short, of 
this kind with them, nor are they defiled by our 
stains, since they are entirely pure and incor- 
ruptible), nor if there are certain material 
vapours of bodies which are emitted about the 
earth ; for these vapours are most remote from 
the essence and power of the Gods. Hence 
the whole hypothesis of contrariety is subverted 
if no part of it pertains to the Gods. For how, 
in short, can that which is not possess in itself 
a certain contest [with any thing]? You in 
vain, therefore, suspect things of this kind to 
be absurd, and you adduce doubts unworthy of 
the Gods, since they cannot be reasonably 
applied even to good men. For no man who 
possesses intellect, and is free from passion, 
would ever permit himself to be allured by the 
exhalation of vapours, and much less would 
any one of the beings more excellent than man 
suflFer himself to be thus allured. These things, 
however, will be discussed shortly after. But 
now, since this contrariety is, through many 
solutions, subverted, we shall here finish what 
we have to say about the first doubt. 



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CHAP. V. 

Your next inquiry is of greater consequence, 
and is concerning things of a greater nature. 
How, therefore, shall I be able, briefly and 
sufficiently, to give you an answer to a question 
which is extremely difficult, and requires a 
long explanation ? Nevertheless I vnXL answer 
it, and without failing in alacrity. I will also 
endeavour to follow what you have concisely 
indicated and tacitly signified. But I will un- 
fold to you my dogma concerning sacrifices 
[which is as follows]. It is by no means requi- 
site that sacrifices should be offered for the 
sake of honour alone, in the same manner as 
we honour benefactors; nor for the sake of 
returning thanks for the goods imparted to us 
by the Gods; nor yet for the sake of first 
fruits, or as a remuneration by certain gifts of 
more venerable goods bestowed on us by the 
Gods. For these things are also common to 
men, and are assumed from the common polity 
of mankind, but by no means preserve the 
transcendency of the Gods and the order of 
them as exempt causes. 



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233 



CHAP. VI. 

But the greatest thing in sacrifices, viz. their 
efficacious power, and why especially they are 
so very beneficial that without them we are 
neither liberated from pestilence, nor famine, 
nor sterility of fruits, nor obtain seasonable 
showers of rain, nor things of much greater 
consequence than these, I mean such as con- 
tribute to the purification of the soul, or an 
emancipation from generation ; these are not at 
all indicated by such modes of sacrifices as you 
adduce. Hence no one can justly approve of 
them, because they assign a cause of the works 
performed in sacrifices unadapted to their dig- 
nity. And if some one should approve of them 
it will be only in a secondary way, and as sus- 
pended from primary, more ancient, and vener- 
able causes. 



CHAP. VII. 



The discussion therefore requires that we 
should show what it is through which sacri- 
fices are effective of things, and are suspended 
from the Gods, the precedaneous causes of 



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234 

eflFects. If then we say that the communion 
of similar powers, or the dissension of contra- 
ries, or a certain aptitude of the agent to the 
patient in the universe, as in one animal, e^mf 
where possessing one and the sam^ 4ife, co- 
excites adapted similars, fiervading with in- 
variable sameness «eeording to one sympathy, 
M3ui csirting most near in things most remote : 
if we should say this, we should thus assert 
something of what is true, and which neces- 
sarily accompanies sacrifices, yet we should 
not demonstrate the true mode of their sub- 
sistence. For the essence of the Gods is not 
placed in nature and in physical necessities, so 
as to be coexcited by physical passions, or by 
the powers which extend through all nature; 
but independently of these, it is defined by itself, 
having nothing in common with them, neither 
according to essence, nor according to power, 
nor any thing else. 



CHAP. VIII. 

The same absurdities likewise happen from 

assigning, as the causes of what is effected by 

sacrifices, either certain numbers that are with 

« us, such, for instance, as assuming the number 



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235 

sixty in the crocodile,* as adapted to the sun ; 
or physical reasons, as the powers and ener- 
gies of animals, for instance, of the dogt, the 

* The number sixty is no less manifest in the crocodile 
than in the sun. For according to Aristotle (in Hist. Anim. 
lib. V.) the crocodile brings forth sixty eggs of a white colour 
and sits on them for sixty days. 

+ " Isis," says Gale, "is the moon. And a dog attended 
Isis when die ws diiigeiitly seeking her husband Osiris. 
But the moon perpetually seeks the sun, and therefore th»t 
sagacious animal, the dog, accords with Isis. In the solem- 
nities, also, of Isis, dogs preceded the procession." After 
this manner others besides Gale, who have not penetrated 
the depths of the philosophy and theology of Plato, would 
doubtless explain what is fabulously said of Isis. In reality, 
however, Isis is not the moon, but one of the divinities that 
revolve in the lunar sphere as an attendant on the moon, and 
who, in modem language, is one of the satellites of that 
planet. For, as I have shown from Proclus, in the Intro- 
duction to my translation of the Timaeus of Plato, every 
planetary sphere is an oXorqSf or a part of the universe 
hamng a total subsistence^ i. e. ranking as a whole, and is 
surrounded with a number of satellites analogous to the 
choir of the fixed stars. Of these satellites, likewise, the 
leaders of which are the planets, the first in order are Gods ; 
after these, daemons revolve in lucid orbicular bodies ; and 
these are followed by partial souls, such as ours. See 
Proclus in Tim, p. 275 and p. 279. This theory, as I have 
elsewhere observed, is the grand key to the theology and 
m3rthology of the ancients, as it shows at one view why the 
same God is so often celebrated with the names of other 
Gods ; which induced Macrobius to think that all the Gods 
were nothing more than different powers of the sun. The 
English reader will find an abundant confirmation of what is 
here said in the fourth book of my translation of the above 
mentioned admirable work of Proclus. 



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236 

cynocephalus,* and the weasel t, these being 
common to the moon ; or material forms, such 
as are seen in sacred animals |; according to 

* ''The Egyptians," says HorapoUo, lib. L "wishing to 
signify the moon, paint a cynocephalus, because this animal 
is variously affected by the course of the moon." 

t In the original fivyakrj. " This word," says Gale, '' is 
written variously, viz. as fivydkrjy fivyakri, and fivyakrj. It 
is also variously translated, for it is either raUus, or mus 
araneus." Plutarch, in the fourth book of his Symposiacs, 
Quest. 5, says, ''that the Egyptians were of opinion that 
darkness was prior to light, and that the latter was produced 
from mice in the fifth generation, at the time of the new 
moon. And further still, they assert that the liver of the 
weasel diminishes in the wane of the moon." 

I With the Egyptians many animals were sacred ; for the 
worship of which the following admirable apology is made 
by Plutarch in his treatise of Isis and Osiris : 

" It now remains that we should speak of the utility of 
these animals to man, and of their syi^ibolical meaning; 
some of them partaking of one of these only, but many of 
them of both. It is evident, therefore, that the Egyptians 
worshiped the ox, the sheep, and the ichneumon, on account 
of their use and benefit, as the Lemnians did larks, for dis- 
covering the eggs of caterpillars and breaking them ; and the 
Thessalians storks, because, as their land produced abun- 
dance of serpents, the storks destroyed all of them as soon as 
they appeared. Hence, also, they enacted a law, that who- 
ever killed a stork should be banished. But the Egyptians 
honoured the asp, the weasel, and the beetle, in consequence 
of observing in them certain dark resemblances of the power 
of the Gods, like that of the sun in drops of water. For at 
present, many believe and assert that the weasel engenders 
by the ear, and brings forth by the mouth, being thus an 
image of the generation of reason [or the productive princi- 
ple of things]. But the genus of beetles has no female ; 



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237 
the colours, and all the forms of the body ; 

and all the males emit their sperm into a spheriele piece of 
earth, which they roll about^ thrusting it backwards with 
their hind feet^ while they themselves move forward; just as 
the sun appears to revolve in a direction contrary to that 
of the heavens, in consequence of moving from west to east. 
They also assimilated the asp to a star, as being exempt 
from old age, and performing its motions, unassisted by 
organs, with agility and ease. Nor was the crocodile 
honoured by them without a probable cause ; but is said to 
have been considered by them as a resemblance of divinity, 
as being the only animal that is without a tongue. For the 
divine reason is unindigent of voice, and proceeding through 
a silent path, and accompanied with* justice, conducts mortal 
affairs according to it. They also say it is theonly animalliving 
in water that has the sight of its eyes covered with a thin and 
transparent film, which descends from his forehead, so that 
he sees without being seen, which is likewise the case with 
the first God. But in whatever place the female crocodile 
may lay her eggs, this may with certainty be ccmduded to be 
the boundary of the increase of the Nile. For not being 
able to lay their eggs in the water, and fearing to lay them 
far from it, they have such an accurate presensation of 
futurity, that though they enjoy the benefit of the river in its 
access, during the time of their laying and hatching, yet they 
preserve their eggs dry and untouched by the water. They 
also lay sixty eggs, are the same number of days in hatching 
them, and those that are the longest lived among them live 
just so many years, which number is the first of the measures 
employed by those who are conversant with the heavenly 
bodies. 

*' Moreover, of those animals that were honoured for both 
reasons, we have before spoken of the dog. But the ibis, 
killing indeed all deadly reptiles, was the first that taught 
men the use of medical evacuation, in consequence of ob- 
serving that she is after this manner washed and purified by 

* Instead of jcat Sciri}}, I read /cat ^era ffucijr. 



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238 
or any thing else pertaining to the bodies of 

herself. Those priests, also, that are most attentive to the 
laws of sacred rites, when they consecrate water for lustra- 
tion, fetch it from that place where the ibis had been drink- 
ing ; for she will neither drink nor come near unwholesome 
or infected water; but with the distance of her feet from each 
other and her bill she makes an equilateral triangle. Farther 
still, the variety and mixture of her black wings about the 
white represents the moon when she is gibbous. 

''We ought not, however, to wonder if the Egyptians 
love such slender similitudes, since the Greeks also, both in 
their pictures and statues, employ many such like resem- 
blances of the Gods. Thus in Crete there was a statue of 
Jupiter without ears. For it is fit that he who is the ruler 
and lord of all things should hear no one.* Phidias also 
placed a dragon by the statue of Minerva, and a snail by that 
of Venus at £lis, to show that virgins require a guard, and 
that keeping at home and silence become married women. 
But the trident of Neptune is a symbol of the third region 
of the world, which the sea possesses, having an arrange- 
ment after the heavens and the air. Hence, also, they thus 
denominated Amphitrite and the Tritons. The Pythago- 
reans, likewise, adorned numbers and figures with the 
appellations of the Gods. For they called the equilateral 
triangle, Minerva Coryphagenes, or begotten from the sum- 
mit, and Tritogeneia because it is divided by three perpen- 
diculars drawn from the three angles. But they called the 
one Apollo, being persuaded to this by the obvious meaning 
of the word Apollo [which signifies a privation of multitude] 
and by the simplicity of the monad f. The duad they deno- 
minated strife and audacity, and the triad justice. For 
since injuring and being injured are two extremes subsisting 
according to excess and defect, justice, through equality, has 
a situation in the middle. But what is called the tetractys, 

* t. e. Should be perfectly ImpartiaL 

t Instead of ScrXorarocf yuonfahos, as in the original, which is nonsense, it 
is necessary to read, as in the above translation, arXoriTrc n^f iMva^o%. 



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239 

animals, or of other things which are offered ; 

being the number 36, was, as is reported^ their greatest oath, 
and was denominated the world. For this number is formed 
from the composition of the four first even and the four first 
odd numbers, collected into one sum.* If, therefore, the 
most approved of the philosophers did not think it proper to 
neglect or despise any occult signification of a divine nature 
when they perceived it even in things which are inanimate 
and incorporeal, it appears to me that they, in a still greater 
degree, venerated those peculiarities depending on manners 
which they saw in such natures as had sense, and were en- 
dued with soul, with passion, and ethical habits. We must 
embrace, therefore, not those who honour these things, but 
those who reverence divinity through these, as through most 
clear mirrors, and which are produced by nature, in a be- 
coming manner, conceiving them to be the instruments or the 
art of the God by whom all things are perpetually adorned. 
Butweought to think that no inanimate being canbemore ex- 
cellentthan one that isanimated, noran insensible thana sen- 
sitive being, not even thoughsome one should collect together 
all the gold and emeralds in the universe. For the divinity 
is not ingenerated either in colours, or figures, or smooth- 
ness ; but such things as neither ever did, nor are naturally 
adapted to participate of life, have an allotment more ignoble 
than that of dead bodies. But the nature which lives and 
sees, and has the principle of motion from itself, and a know- 
ledge of things appropriate and foreign to its being, has cer- 
tainly derived an efflux and portion of that wisdom which, 
as Heraditus says, considers how both itself and the uni- 
verse is governed. Hence the divinity is not worse repre- 
sented in these animals than in the workmanships of copper 
and stone, which in a similar manner suffer corruption and 
decay, but are naturally deprived of all sense and conscious- 
ness. This then I consider as the best defence that can be 
given of the adoration of animals by the Egyptians." 

* For 2 + 4 + 6 + 8=20; and 1 + 8 + 5 + 7=16 ; and 20 + 16=86. 



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240 

or a certain member, as the heart of a cock ; * 
or other things of the like kind which are sur- 
veyed about nature, if they are considered as 
the causes of the eflScacy in sacrifices. For 
from these things the Gods are not demon- 
strated to be supernatural causes ; nor, as such, 
to be excited by sacrifices. But they are con- 
sidered as physical causes detained by matter, 
and as physically involved in bodies, and co- 
excited and becoming quiescent together with 
them, these things also existing about nature. 
If, therefore, any thing of this kind takes place 
in sacrifices, it follows as a concause, and as 
having the relation of that without which a 
thing is not eflfected ; and thus it is suspended 
from precedaneous causes. 



CHAP. IX. 



It is better, therefore, to assign as the cause of 
the efficacy of sacrifices friendship and fami- 
liarity, and a habitude which binds fabricators 
to the things fabricated, and generators to the 

* The cock was sacred to Apollo, and therefore its heart 
was believed to be the instrument of divination in sacrifices. 
The chemic Olympiodorus says, " that the cock obscurely 
signifies the essence of the sun and moon.*' See, in the 
additional notes, what is said by Proclus concerning the 
cock, in his treatise On Magic. 



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241 

things generated. Hence when, this common 
principle preceding, we take a certain animal, 
or any thing which germinates in the earth, 
and which genuinely and purely preserves the 
will of its maker; then, through a thing of this 
kind, we appropriately move the demiurgic 
cause, which presides over it in an undefiled 
manner. But these causes heing many, and 
some, as the dsemoniacal causes, having a 
proximate arrangement; hut others, as divine 
causes, heing arranged ahove these ; and far- 
ther still, one most ancient and venerahle cause 
heing the leader of these; all the causes are 
moved in conjunction by a perfect sacrifice. 
Each thing, likewise, is in a kindred manner 
adapted to the sacrifice, according to the order 
which it is allotted. But if any sacrifice is 
imperfect, it proceeds to a certain extent, but 
is not capable of proceeding any further. Hence 
many are of opinion that sacrifices are to be 
offered to good daemons, many to the last pow- 
ers of the Gods, and many to the mundane or 
terrestrial powers of daemons or Gods. These 
things, therefore, as being a part of sacrifices, 
are not falsely asserted ; but they do not com- 
prehend the whole of the power of sacrifice, 
and all the goods it contains, which extend to 
every thing divine. 

R 



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242 



CHAP. X. 

We, however, admit all these assertions ; physi- 
cal essences, indeed, being coexcited as in one 
animal, according to aptitude or sympathy, as 
in another respect being subjects, and following 
and being subservient to the cause of the effi- 
cacy of sacrifices ; but dsemons, and terrene or 
mundane divine powers, being primarily fami- 
liarized to our order; nevertheless, we must 
say, that the most perfect and leading cause of 
the efficacy of sacrifices is to be conjoined to 
demiurgic and the most perfect powers. But 
since these comprehend in themselves all the 
causes of sacrifice, we say that all the effective 
causes of it are at once coexcited together 
with these. And from all these a common 
utility is imparted to the whole of generation ; 
sometimes through cities and people, or all 
various nations, or circumscriptions more or less 
extended than these ; but at other times through 
houses, or an individual, these causes impart 
good with an unenvyitig and exuberant will, 
unaccompanied with passion; conferring their 
benefits with an impassive intellect, according 
to adaptation and alliance; one friendship at 
the same time which connectedly contains all 



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243 

things, producing this bond through a certain 
inefiiEible communion. 

For these assertions are much more true, 
and more characteristic of the essence and 
power of the Gods, than what you suspect to 
be the case> viz. ** that the Gods are especially 
allured by the vapours produced in the sacrifices 
of animals^ For if daemons are invested with 
a certain body, which some think is nourished 
by sacrifices, yet this body is immutable and 
impassive, luciform and unindigent; so that 
neither does any thing flow from it, nor is it in 
waat of any influx externally introduced. And 
if some one should admit that there is this 
influx,, yet since the world and the air con- 
tained in it have a never failing abiindance of 
exhalations from terrene places, an efflux of 
this kind being equally diffused on all sides, 
what use can there be of sacrifices to daemons ? 
But neither do the influxions equally and com- 
mjensurately fill the place of the effluxions, so 
as that neither excess. should at any time pre- 
dominate, nor deficiency be produced, but that 
there should be a perfect equality and simili- 
tude of the bodies of daemons, and this invaria- 
bly the same. For the Demiurgus of the uni- 
verse has not provided abundant nutriment, 
and which may be easily obtained, for all the 
animals in the earth and the sea, but has made 

r2 



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244 

the beings superior to us to be in want of it ; 
nor has he imparted to other animals a native 
abundance of what is daily requisite, but given 
to daemons nutriment which is adscititious and 
procured by us men ; so that if we through in- 
dolence, or some other pretext, should neglect 
an offering of this kind, the bodies of daemons 
would be in want of food, and would partici- 
pate of incommensuration and disorder. Why, 
therefore, do not the authors of these assertions 
subvert the whole order of things, so as to 
make us to be in a better and more powerful 
class of beings? For if we supply daemons 
with nutriment, we shall much more be the 
causes of their existence. For every thing re- 
ceives nutriment and perfection from that by 
which it was generated. And this, indeed, may 
be seen in the visible generations of things ; but 
it may also be surveyed in the heavens and the 
earth. For terrestrial are nourished by celes- 
tial natures. But this becomes most eminently 
manifest in invisible causes. For soul, indeed, 
is perfected by intellect; but nature by soul. 
And other things are in a similar manner 
nourished by their causes. If, therefore, it is 
impossible that we should be the primordial 
causes of daemons, it is, for the same reason, 
impossible that we should be the causes of 
their nutriment 



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CHAP. XI. 

It appears to me, also, that the present ques- 
tion errs in another respect. For it is ignomant 
that the offering of sacrifices through fire has 
the power of consuming and destroying the 
matter of them in a greater degree; that it 
assimilates this matter to itself, hut is not itself 
assimilated to the matter ; and that it elevates 
to divine, celestial, and immaterial fire, hut 
does not tend downwards to matter and gene- 
ration. For if the enjoyment of the vapours 
from matter allured deemons, it would he requi- 
site that the matter should be pure and entire ; 
since thus there would be a more abundant 
efilux from it to its participants. But now all 
the matter is enkindled and consumed, and is 
changed into the purity and tenuity of fire ; 
which is itself a clear indication of the contrary 
to what you assert. For superior beings [i. e. 
daemons] are impassive, and they are delighted 
to amputate matter through fire, and render us 
impassive. They likewise assimilate whatever 
is in us to the Gods, in the same manner as 
fire^ assimilates all solid and resisting sub- 

* It is well observed by Ficinus, in lib. i. Eunead. ii. 
Plotin. ''that the fire which is enkindled by us is more 
similar to the heavens than other terrestrial substances. 



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246 

stances to luminous and attenuated bodies* 
And they elevate us througli sacrifices and the 
sacrifice fire to the fire of the Gods, in the same 
manner as fire elevates to fire, and draws up- 
ward gravitating and resisting substances to 
divine and celestial natures. 



CHAP. XII. 



For, in short, the vehicle ^ which is subservient 
to daemons neither consists of matter, nor of 
the elements, nor of any other of the bodies 
known to us. What perfect supply of food, 
therefore, can there be from one essence to an- 
other [specifically different]? Or what enjoy- 
ment can accede from foreign to foreign natures ? 
There cannot be any. But much more, as the 
Gods by the fire of lightning divide matter, 
and separate from it things which are essen- 

Hence it participates of lights which is something incorpo- 
real, is the most powerful of all things^ is as it were vital, is 
perpetually moved, divides all things, without being itself 
divided, absorbs all things in itself, and avoids any foreign 
mixture : and lastly, when the fuel of it is consumed, it sud- 
denly flies back again to the celestial fire, which is every 
where latent." 

* For this vehicle is luciform, and consists of pure, imma- 
terial, unbuming, and vivific fire. See the fifth book of my 
translation of Proclus on the Timaeus. 



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247 

tially immaterial, but which are vanquished 
and bound by it, and render them impassive 
from being passive; thus also the fire that is 
with us, imitating the energy of divine fire, 
destroys every thing which is material in sacri- 
fices, purifies the things which axe oflfered, 
liberates them from the bonds of matter, and 
renders them, through purity of nature, adapted 
to the communion of the Gods. It likewise 
liberates* us after the same manner from the 
bonds of generation, assimilates us to the Gods, 
causes us to be adapted to their friendship, 
and conducts our material nature to an imma- 
terial essence. 

* Proclus in Tim. lib. v. observes concerning the telestie 
art, or the art which operates through mystic ceremonies, 
" that, as the oracles teach, it obliterates through divine fire 
all the stains produced by generation." H TcXc^tiny Sia rov 
Qeiov irvpos a<^v4^ct ras €k nys yevco-co)? airoo-as Ki^A,t6as, ois 
Ttt Xoyia 6i8ou7#c€i. Hence another Chaldean oracle says, 
T<fi irvpi yap Pporos cfiTrcAouras Seodev ijxios c^ct, i, e. ''The 
mortal who approaches to fire will have a light from divi- 
nity." Hercules, as we also learn from Proclus, was an 
example of this telestie purification. For he says, UpaKXrfs 
8ta TcAc^iKiys KaOypajjievos, Kai Ttav a\pavriay KapTnav pjerwT' 
X^Vf TcXctas erv\€ cts rovs Oeovs aTro/caTa^ourcws, in Plat. 
Polit. p. 382. L e, '' Hercules being purified through the 
telestie art, and participating of undefiled fruits, obtained a 
perfect restoration to the Gods." 



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CHAP. XIII. 

Subverting, therefore, in this manner the 
common absurd opinions concerning sacrifices, 
we shall introduce in their place true concep- 
tions about them; omitting the particular dis- 
cussion of each species of sacrifice, which the 
peculiar and distinct consideration of sacrifices 
requires, because this pertains to another in- 
quiry, and because, at the same time, every- 
one who is intelligent may be able to accom- 
plish this from what has been already said, and 
from one thing may extend his reasoning power 
to many, and may easily know what is omitted 
from what has been discussed. And I, indeed, 
think that these things have been sufficiently 
explained, both in other respects and because 
the explanation pays attention in a becoming 
manner to the purity of the Gods. Because, 
however, it may perhaps appear to others to be 
incredible, and not sufficiently manifest, and 
the veracity of it may be suspected, as not ex- 
citing the discursive energy of reason, I wish 
to consider these things a little more fully; 
and, if possible, to add arguments more evident 
than those which have been adduced. 



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CHAP. XIV. 

We shall begin, however, the elucidation of 
this subject in the best possible manner, if we 
demonstrate that the sacred law of sacrifices is 
connected with the order of the Gods. In the 
first place, therefore, we say, that of the Gods 
some are material, but others immaterial And 
the material, indeed, are those that compre- 
hend matter in themselves, and adorn it; but 
the immaterial are those that are perfectly 
exempt from, and transcend, matter. But, 
according to the sacrific art, it is requisite to 
begin sacred operations from the material Gods : 
for the ascent to the immaterial Gods will not 
otherwise be effected. The material Gods, 
therefore, have a certain communion with mat- 
ter, so far as they preside over it. Hence they 
•have dominion over things which happen about 
matter, such as the division, percussion, re- 
percussion, mutation, generation, and corrup- 
tion of all material bodies. He, therefore, who 
wishes to worship these theurgically, in a man- 
ner adapted to them, and to the dominion 
which they are allotted, should, as they are 
materia], employ a material mode of worship. 
For thus we shall be wholly led to a familiarity 
with them, and worship them in an allied and 



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appropriate manner. Dead bodies, therefore, 
and things deprived of life, the slaying of ani- 
mals, and the consumption of victims, and, in 
short, the mutation of the matter which is 
offered, pertain to these Gods, not by them- 
selves, but on account of the matter over which 
they preside. For though they are in the most 
eminent degree separate from it, yet at the same 
time they are present with it. And though they 
comprehend matter in an immaterial power, 
yet they are coexistent with it. Things that 
are governed, also, are not foreign from their 
governors; and things which are subservient 
as instruments, are not unadapted to those 
that use them. Hence, it is foreign to the im- 
material Gods, to offer matter to them through 
sacrifices, but this is most adapted to all the 
material Gods* 



CHAP. XV. 



Let us then, in the next place, direct our 
attention to that which accords with what has 
been before said, and with our twofold con- 
dition of being. For there is a time when we 
become wholly soul, are out of the body, and 
sublimely revolve on high, in conjunction with 
all the immaterial Gods. And there is also a 



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251 

time when we are bound in the testaceous 
body, are detained by matter, and are of a 
corporeal -formed nature. Again, therefore, 
there will be a twofold mode of worship. For 
one mode, indeed, will be simple, incorporeal, 
and pure from all generation, and this mode 
pertains to undefiled souls. But the other is 
filled with bodies, and every thing of a material 
nature, and is adapted to souls which are 
neither pure nor liberated from all generation. 
We must admit, therefore, that there are two- 
fold species of sacrifices ; one kind, indeed, per- 
taining to men who are entirely purified, which, 
as Heraclitus says, rarely happens to one 
man, or to a certain easily to be numbered few 
of mankind ; but the other kind, being material 
and corporeal-formed, and consisting in muta- 
tion, is adapted to souls that are still detained 
by the body. Hence, to cities and people not 
yet liberated from genesiurgic fate and the im- 
peding communion of bodies, if such a mode of 
sacrifice as this latter is not permitted, they 
will wander both from immaterial and material 
good. For they will not be able to receive 
the former, and to the latter they will not offer 
what is appropriate. At the same time, like- 
wise, every one in sacrificing performs the 
sacrifice with reference to what he is, and not 
with reference to what he is not. It is not 



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proper, therefore, that the sacrifice should tran- 
scend the proper measure of him by whom it 
is oflfered. The same thing will also be said by 
me concerning the connexion which appropri- 
ately coadapts the men who worship and the 
powers that are worshiped. For this con- 
nexion requires that a mode of worship should 
be chosen adapted to itself ; viz. an immaterial 
connexion, a mode of worship immaterially 
mingled, and purely conjoining by pure incor- 
poreal powers, incorporeal natures to them- 
selves ; but a corporeal-formed connexion, a 
corporeal-formed mode which depends on bo- 
dies, and is mingled with the essences that pre- 
side over bodies. 



CHAP. XVI. 



Fakther still, therefore, we must not disdain 
to add what follows; that we frequently per- 
form something to the Gods who are the in- 
spective guardians of body, and to good dsemons, 
for the sake of the necessary use of the body ; 
as, for instance, when [by sacrifices] we purify 
it from ancient stains, or liberate it from dis- 
eases, and fill it with health, or remove from it 
heaviness and torpor, or procure for it any other 
good. In this case, therefore, we evidently 



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must not busy ourselves with the body in an 
intellectual and incorporeal manner. For the 
body is not adapted to participate of modes 
of this kind ; but, obtaining things which are 
allied to itself, it is meliorated and purified by 
bodies. The rites of sacrifices, therefore, will 
necessarily, for a purpose of this kind, be cor- 
poreal-formed ; partly cutting off what is super- 
fluous in us; partly supplying us with that of 
which we are in want ; and partly leading into 
symmetry and order such things in us as are 
immoderately disturbed. We also ferquently 
engage in sacred operations, entreating supe- 
rior beings to grant us such things as are 
adapted to the wants of human life. And 
these are such as preserve the body in health, 
or pertain to those things which we procure for 
the sake of the body. 



CHAP. XVII. 



What, therefore, shall we derive from the 
Gods who are entirely exempt from all human 
generation, with respect to sterility, or abun- 
dance or any thing else pertaining to [the 
mortal] life ? Nothing whatever. For it is not 
the province of those who are liberated from 
all things to meddle with gifts of this kind. 



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But if some one should say that the perfectly 
immaterial comprehend in themselves the ma- 
terial Gods, and that through this they also 
contain in themselres their gifts according to 
one first cause; such a one will also say, that 
in consequence of this an abundance of divine 
gifts descend &om the immaterial Gods. It 
must not, however^ be granted to any one to 
say that the immaterial Gods bestow these 
gifts by proximately interfering with the actions 
of human life. For such an administration of 
our aflfairs is partible, is accomplished with a 
certain conversion [to the subjects of its care], 
is not entirely separate from bodies, and is in- 
capable of receiving a pure and undefiled domi- 
nation. Will not, therefore, that mode of 
sacrifice in works of this kind be most appro- 
priate which is mingled with bodies, and ad- 
heres to generation ; and not that which is 
entirely immaterial and incorporeal? For the 
pure mode of sacrifice is perfectly transcendent 
and incommensurate [with our concerns]. But 
the mode which employs bodies, and the powers 
that subsist through bodies, is in the most emi- 
nent degree allied to human affairs. It is also 
capable of producing a certain prosperous con^ 
dition of things, and of imparting symmetry and 
temperament to the mortal race. 



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CHAP. XVIII. 

AeooBDiNG to another division, therefore, the 
numerous herd [or the grent mass] of men is 
arranged under nature, is governed by physical 
powers, looks downward to the works of nature, 
gives completion to the administration of Fate, 
and to things pertaining to Fate, because it be- 
longs to the order of it, and always employs 
practical reasoning about such particulars alone 
as subsist according to nature. But there are 
a certain few who, by employing a certain 
supernatural power of intellect, are removed 
indeed from nature, but are conducted to a 
separate and unmingled intellect; and these, 
at the same time, become superior to physical 
powers. Others again, who are the media be- 
tween these, tend to things which subsist be- 
tween nature and a pure intellect. And of 
these, some indeed equally follow both nature 
and an immaculate intellect ; others embrace a 
life which is mingled from both ; and others 
are liberated from things subordinate, and be- 
take themselves to such as are more excel- 
lent. 

This division, therefore, being made, that 
which follows will most manifestly take place. 
For those who are governed by the nature of 



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the universe, who lived conformably to this, and 
employ the powers of nature, these should 
embrace a mode of worship adapted to nature, 
and to the bodies that are moved by nature, 
and should choose for this purpose appropriate 
places, air, matter, the powers of matter, bodies, 
and the habits of bodies, qualities, and proper 
motions, the mutations of things in generation, 
and other things connected with these, both in 
other parts of piety and in that part of it which 
pertains to sacrifice. But those who live con- 
formably to intellect alone, and to the life of in- 
tellect, and are liberated from the bonds of 
nature, these should exercise in all the parts of 
theurgy the intellectual and incorporeal mode 
of worship. And those who are the media be- 
tween these, should labour differently in the 
paths of piety, conformably to the differences 
of this middle condition of life, either by em- 
bracing both modes of piety, or separating 
themselves from one of the modes [and adhering 
to the other], or receiving both these modes as 
the foundation of things of a more honourable 
nature. For without these they never can 
arrive at things supereminent. Or, in some 
other way, they should thus, in a becoming 
manner, labour in the paths of sancity. 



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CHAP. XIX. 

On this subject, however, there is also the fol- 
lowing division. Of divine essences and powers 
some have [a genesiurgic] soul and nature sub- 
ject and ministrant to their fabrications, when- 
ever they wish to use them. But others are 
entirely separate from soul and nature, I mean 
from a divine, and not only from a mundane 
and genesiurgic soul and nature.'^ And others 
are the media t between these, and afford to 
the extremes a communion with each other, 
either according to an exuberant participation 
of greater good, or according to an unimpeded 
reception of less good, or according to a con- 
cord which binds together both the extremes. 
When, therefore, we worship the Gods who 

* In the original, Aeyw Be rr]s deiaq tfrv^ris t€ Kai <^v(r€a)9, 
aXAf ovx* TT^s 7r€piKoa-ixiov re Kai yeveaiovpyov. But it ap- 
pears to me that we should here read, conformably to the 
above translation, Acyo) Se rrjs detas, ^XV^ '''^ *^°-^ <l>va-€ms^ 
aXA' ovxi fJLOVOv Tqs Tr€piKO(riiiov re icat yevea-iovpyov. 

t These media consist of the order of Gods denominated 
ap\ai, or rulers, and of those called aTroXvroi, or liberated ; 
the former of which also are denominated supermundane, 
and the latter supercelestial, in consequence of existing im- 
mediately above the celestial Gods. See, concerning these 
media, the sixth book of my translation of Proclus on the 
Theology of Plata 

S 



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reign over soul and nature, it is not foreign to 
these to oflfer to them physical powers, and 
bodies which are governed by nature. For all 
the works of nature are subservient to them, 
and contribute to their government. But when 
we undertake to honour those Gods who are 
essentially uniform, then it is requisite to vene- 
rate them with liberated honours. Hence, in- 
tellectual gifts are adapted to these, and things 
which pertain to an incorporeal life, together 
with the fruits of virtue and wisdom, and what- 
ever perfect and total goods of the soul there 
may be. Moreover, to the Gods who subsist 
as media, and who are the leaders of goods of a 
middle nature, sometimes twofold gifts will be 
adapted, and sometimes such as have a com- 
munication with both these ; or such as are 
separated from inferiors, and pertain to more 
elevated natures; or, in short, such as in one 
of the modes give completion to the medium. 



CHAP. XX. 



Being impelled, therefore, from another prin- 
ciple, viz. from the world and the mundane 
Gods, from the arrangement of the four elements 
in the world, and the association of the elements 
according to [appropriate] measures, and also 



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from the orderly circulation of bodies about 
centres, we shall have an easy ascent to the 
truth of the piety respecting sacrifices. For if 
we are in the world, are contained as parts in 
the universe, are primarily produced by it, and 
perfected by the total powers that are in it, 
and if we consist of its elements, and receive 
from it a certain portion of life and nature ; if 
this be the case, it is not proper to pass be- 
yond the world and the mundane orders. We 
must admit, therefore, that in each part of the 
world there is this visible body, and that there 
are also incorporeal powers, which are divided 
about bodies. Hence the law of religion dis- 
tributes similars to similars, and thus extends 
from on high, through wholes, as far as to the 
last of things ; assigning, indeed, incorporeals 
to incorporeals, but bodies to bodies, and this 
commensurately to the nature of each. If, 
however, some theurgist should participate of 
the supermundane Gods, which is the rarest 
of all things, he, indeed, in the worship of the 
Gods will transcend both bodies and matter; 
being united to the Gods by a supermundane 
power. But that which happens to one person 
with difficulty and late, and at the end of the 
sacerdotal office, ought not to be promulgated 
as common to all men ; nor ought it to be 
made a thing common to those who are com- 

s 2 



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mencing theurgic operations, nor to those who 
have made a middle proficiency in it For 
these, after a manner, pay a corporeal-formed 
attention to sanctity. 



CHAP. XXL 



I THINK, therefore, that all who are lovers of 
the contemplation of theurgic truth will acknow- 
ledge this, that the piety which pertains to 
divine natures ought not to be exercised to- 
wards them partially or imperfectly. Hence, 
since prior to the appearance of the Gods, all 
such powers as are presubjacent to them are 
moved, and when the Gods are about to de- 
scend to the earth, precede them as in a solemn 
procession ; * he who does not distribute to all 
these powers that which is adapted to them, 

* Proclus on the First Alcibiades observes, " that about 
every Grod there is an innumerable multitude of daemons, 
who have the same appellations with their leaders. And 
that these are delighted when they are called by the names of 
Apollo or Jupiter, because they express in themselves the 
characteristic peculiarity of their leading Gods." In the 
same admirable commentary, also, he says, ''that in the 
most holy of the mysteries [i, e, in the Eleusinian mysteries], 
prior to the appearance of divinity, the incursions of certain 
terrestrial daemons present themselves to the view, alluring 
the souls of the spectators from imdefiled good to matter." 



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and does not honour each in an appropriate 
manner, will depart imperfect, and destitute of 
the participation of the Gods. But he who 
propitiates all of them, and offers to each 
acceptable gifts, and such as are to the utmost 
of his power adapted to them, will always 
remain secure and irreprehensible, giving com- 
pletion in a proper manner to the perfect and 
entire receptacle of the divine choir. Since 
this, therefore, is the case, whether is it neces- 
sary that the mode of sanctity should be simple, 
and consist of a certain few things, or that it 
should be multiform and all-harmonic, and 
mingled, as I may say, from every thing con- 
tained in the world? If, indeed, the power 
which is invoked, and is excited in the per- 
formance of sacred rites, was simple, the mode 
of sacrifice should necessarily be simple. But 
if the multitude of powers which are excited 
when the Gods descend and are moved, is not 
to be comprehended by any one, except theur- 
gists alone, who accurately know this through 
experience in sacred operations ; if this be the 
case, they alone are capable of knowing what 
the perfection is of the sacrific art ; and they 
also know that the omission, though of a few 
things, subverts the whole work of religion ; 
just as in harmony, from the bursting of one 



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262 

chord, the whole becomes dissonant and in- 
commensurate.* As, therefore, in the visible 
descents of the Gods, a manifest injury is 
sustained by those who leave some one of the 
more excellent genera unhonoured,t thus also 

* It is beautifully observed by Simplicius on Epictetus, 
" that as if you take away letters from a sentence, or change 
them, the form of the sentence no longer remains, thus also 
in divine works or words, if any thing is deficient, or is 
changed, or is confused, divine illumination does not take 
place, but the indolence of him who does this dissolves the 
power of what is effected." Qoirep yap eav ^oLxeia rov 
Xjoyov a<[)€X'QS, rj vTraXXa^Sy ovk cTrtyiverat to tov koyov 
€t6o$, ovT(o Kai TcoK 0€uov €py<av rj Aoycov €i cAXctwct n, rj 
vin/AXaKTat, ^ (rvy K€')(yr ai^ ovk einywerai rf rov d^iov cA- 
kafxtpiSf akka Kai €^v8apoi Tqv tcov ytvo/Acvwv Svvafitv rj 
TOV TTOUOVVTO^ paOvjxia, 

t Conformably to this, Servius, in his Annotations on the 
words 

Diique, deaeque omnes — 

in the sixth book of the iEneid observes, '' more pontificum, 
per quos ritu veteri in omnibus sacris post speciales Deos, 
quos ad ipsum sacrum, quod fiebat necesse erat invocari, 
generaliter omnia numina invocabantur." t. e, ''This is 
spoken after the manner of the pontiffs, by whom, according 
to ancient rites, in all sacrifices, after the appropriate Gods 
whom it was necessary to invoke to the sacrifice, all the 
divinities were invoked in general." And in his Annota- 
tions on the seventh of the iEneid he informs us, ''that king 
CEneus offered a sacrifice of first fruits to all the divinities 
but Diana, who being enraged sent a boar [as a punishment 
for the neglect]." With respect to this anger, however, of 



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in the invisible appearances of the Gods in 
sacrifices, it is not proper to honour one of 
them, and not honour another, but it is entirely 
requisite to honour each of them according to 
the order which he is allotted. But he who 
leaves some one of them unhonoured, con- 
founds the whole work of piety, and divulses 
the one and whole orderly distribution of it; 
not, in so doing, as some one may think, imper- 
fectly receiving the Gods, but entirely sub- 
verting all the ceremonies of religion. 



CHAP. XXIL 



What then [it may be said], does not the sum- 
mit of the sacrific art recur to the most princi- 
pal one of the whole multitude of Gods, and 
at one and the same time worship the many 
essences and principles that are [rooted and 
concentred] in it ? Entirely so, but this happens 
at the latest period, and to a very few, and we 
must be satisfied if it takes place when the sun 
of life is setting. Our present discussion, how- 
Diana, it is necesary to observe with Proclus, ''that the 
anger of the Gods does not refer any passion to them, but in- 
dicates our inaptitude to participate of them." O ya.p twv 
d&av xo^05, ovK €ts €K€tvas avair€/Air€t ri iraOoSy aXka rrjv 



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264 

ever, does not ordain laws for a man of this 
kind; for he is superior to all law;* but it 
promulgates a law such as that of which we 
are now speaking, to those who are in want of 
a certain divine legislation.t It says, there- 
fore, that as the world has one coarrangement 
from many orders, thus also it is necessary 
that the consummation of sacrifices, being 
never failing and entire, should be conjoined to 
the whole order of more excellent natures. 
If, however, the world is multiform, and all- 
perfect, and is united from many orders, it is 
also necessary that sacred operations should 
imitate its omniform variety through the whole 
of the powers which they employ. Hence, in 
a similar manner, since the things which sur- 
round us are all-various, it is not fit that we 
should be connected with the divine causes 



* Plotinus was a man of this description, to whom, most 
probably, lamblichus alludes in what he now says. 

t In the original Bvfwv rivos : but it is doubtless requisite 
to read with Gale, Oea-fxov tivos. This I have translated 
a certain divine legislation, because we are informed by 
Proclus, in Platon. Theol. lib. iv. p. 206, ''that Oea-fios is 
connected with deity, and pertains more to intelligibles ; 
but that voixos, which unfolds intellectual distribution, is 
adapted to the intellectual fathers." O yap dea-fjLo^ (rvfifrke- 
Kcrai T<^ tfcy, Ktti wpoarr)K€i fjLakXov rots voiyrois' o 8c vo/xos 
rrjv voepav e/Ac^tvwv Siavo/jwyv, oiKeios c<r* rots voe/)04S irar- 
paa-i. 



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265 

that preside over them, from a certain part 
which they contain. Nor is it proper that we 
should ascend imperfectly to the primordial 
causes of them. 



CHAP. XXIII. 



The various mode, therefore, of sanctity in 
sacred operations partly purifies and partly 
perfects some one of the things that are in us 
or about us. And some things, indeed, it re- 
stores to symmetry and order; but others it 
liberates from mortal-formed error. But it 
renders all things familiar and friendly to all 
the natures that are superior to us. More- 
over, when divine causes, and human prepara- 
tions which are assimilated to them conspire in 
one and the same, then the perfection of sacred 
operations imparts all the perfect and great 
benefits of sacrifice. It will not be amiss, also, to 
add such particulars as the following, in order 
to the accurate comprehension of these things. 
An exuberance of power is always present with 
the highest causes, and at the same time that 
this power transcends all things, it is equally 
present with all with unimpeded energy. Hence, 
conformably to this, the first illuminate the last 
of things, and immaterial are present vidth ma- 



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terial natures immaterially. Nor should it be 
considered by any one as wonderful, if we say 
that there is a certain pure and divine matter.'^ 
For matter being generated by the father and 
demiurgus of wholes, receives a perfection 
adapted to itself, in order to its becoming the 
receptacle of the Gods. At the same time 
nothing prevents more excellent beings from 
being able to impart their light to subordinate 
natures. Neither, therefore, is matter sepa- 
rated from the participation of better causes ; 
so that such matter as is perfect, pure, and 
boniform, is not unadapted to the reception of 
the Gods. For, since it is requisite that ter- 
restrial natures should by no means be desti- 
tute of divine communion, the earth also re- 
ceives a certain divine portion from it, sufficient 
for the participation of the Gods. The theurgic 
art, therefore, perceiving this to be the case, 
and thus having discovered in common, appro- 
priate receptacles, conformably to the pecu- 

* ''Perhaps/' says Proclus, in MS. Comment, in Par- 
menid. '' it is necessary that, as in souls, natures, and bodies, 
fabrication does not begin from the imperfect ; so likewise in 
matter, prior to that which is formless, and which has an 
evanescent being, there is that which is in a certain respect 
form, and which is beheld in one boundary and permanency." 
This, therefore, will be the pure and divine matter of which 
lamblichus is now speaking. Damascius also says, that 
matter is from the same order whence form is derived. 



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liarity of each of the Gods, it frequently con- 
nects together stones, herbs, animals, aromatics, 
and other sacred, perfect, and deiform sub- 
stances of the like kind ; and afterwards, from 
all these, it produces an entire and pure re- 
ceptacle. For it is not proper to despise all 
matter, but that alone which is foreign from 
the Gods. But that matter is to be chosen 
which is adapted to them, as being able to 
accord with the edifices of the Gods, the dedi- 
cation of statues, and the sacred operations 
of sacrifices. For no otherwise can a partici- 
pation of superior beings be obtained by places 
in the earth, or by men that dwell in it, unless 
a foundation of this kind is first established. 
It is also requisite to he persuaded by arcane 
assertions^ that a certain matter is imparted by 
the Gods, through blessed visions. This matter, 
therefore, is doubtless connascent with those 
by whom it is imparted. Hence, does it not 
follow that the sacrifice of a matter of this 
kind excites the Gods to present themselves to 
the view, immediately calls forth the participa- 
tion of them, receives them when they accede, 
and perfectly unfolds them into light ? 



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CHAR XXIV. 

The same things also may be learned from 
the distribution of the Gods according to places ; 
and from this, and the partible dominion over 
each particular thing, it may be seen how many 
allotments, greater or less, superior beings are 
assigned according t6 their different orders. 
For it is evident, that to the Gods who preside 
over certain places, the things produced by 
them are most appropriately offered in sacri- 
fice ; and that what pertains to the governed is 
most adapted to be sacrificed to the governors. 
For always to makers their own works are 
particularly grateful; and to those who pri- 
marily produce certain things, such things are 
primarily acceptable. Whether, therefore, cer- 
tain animals, or plants, or any other produc- 
tions of the earth, are governed by superior 
beings, at one and the same time, they partici- 
pate of their inspeotive care, and impart to us 
an indivisible communion with the Gods. Some 
things, therefore, of this kind, if they are care- 
fully preserved, increase the familiarity of those 
that retain them with the Gods ; and these are 
such as by remaining entire, preserve the com- 
munion between Gods and men. Of this kind 
are some of the animals in Egypt, and man. 



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who is everywhere sacred. But some things, 
when consecrated, produce a more manifest 
familiarity ; and these are such as by an analy- 
sis into the principle of the first elements, eflfect 
an alliance more sacredly adapted to superior 
causes. For the more perfect this alliance is, 
the more perfect always is the good which is 
imparted by it. 



CHAP. XXV. 



If, therefore, these things were human customs 
alone, and derived their authority through our 
legal institutions, it might be said that the 
worship of the Gods was the invention of our 
conceptions. Now, however, divinity is the 
leader of it, who is thus invoked by sacrifices, 
and who is surrounded by a numerous multi- 
tude of Gods and angels. Under him, like- 
wise, a certain common presiding power, is 
allotted dominion according to each nation of 
the earth. And a peculiar presiding power is 
allotted to each temple. Of the sacrifices, 
also, which are performed to the Gods, the 
inspective guardian is a God ; but an angel, of 
those which are performed to angels ; and a 
daemon, of such as are performed to daemons. 
After the same manner, also, in other sacred 



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operations, the presiding power is allotted do- 
minion over each, in a way allied to his proper 
genus. When, therefore, we offer sacrifices to 
the Gods, accompanied by the presiding Gods, 
who give completion to sacred operations, then 
at the same time, it is necessary in sacrifices to 
venerate the sacred law of divine sanctity ; 
and at the same time, also, we ought to be 
confident,, as sacrificing under the Gods who 
are the rulers of such works. We ought, like- 
wise, to be very cautious, lest we should offer 
any gift unworthy of, or foreign from, the 
Gods. And, as the last admonition, we should 
in a manner entirely perfect, pay attention to 
all that surrounds us, and to the Gods, angels, 
and daemons that are distributed according to 
genera in the universe. And to aU these, in a 
similar manner, an acceptable sacrifice should 
be offered ; for thus alone sanctity can be pre- 
served in a way worthy of the Gods who pre- 
side over it. 



CHAP. XXVI. 



Since, however, prayers are not the smallest 
[but on the contrary a very great] part of sacri- 
fices, especially give completion to them, and 
through these the whole operation of them is 
corroborated and effected; and since, besides 



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this, they aflFord a common utility to religion, 
and produce an indissoluble and sacred com- 
munion with the Gods, it will not be improper 
to discuss a few particulars concerning prayer. 
For this is of itself a thing worthy to be known, 
and renders more perfect the science concern- 
ing the Gods. I say, therefore, that the first 
species of prayer is collective ; and that it is 
also the leader of contact with, and a know- 
ledge of, divinity. The second species is the 
bond of concordant communion, calling forth, 
prior to, the energy of speech, the gifts im- 
parted by the Gods, and perfecting the whole 
of our operations prior to our intellectual con- 
ceptions. And the third and most perfect 
species of prayer is the seal of ineffable union 
with the divinities, in whom it establishes all 
the power and authority of prayer; and thus 
causes the soul to repose in the Gods, as in a 
never failing port. But from these three terms, 
in which all the divine measures are contained, 
suppliant adoration not only conciliates to us 
the friendship of the Gods, but supernally ex- 
tends to us three fruits, being as it were three 
Hesperian apples of gold.* The first of these 

♦ This particular respecting the apples of gold is added 
from the version of Scutellius, who appears to have trans- 
lated this work from a more perfect manuscript than that 
which was used by Gale. 



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272 

pertains to illumination; the second, to a com- 
munion of operation; but through the energy 
of the third, we receive a perfect plenitude of 
divine f re. And sometimes, indeed, supplica- 
tion precedes; like a precursor preparing the 
way before the sacrifice appears. But some 
times it intercedes as a mediator; and sonie- 
times accomplishes the end of sacrificing. No 
operation, however, in sacred concerns, can 
succeed without the intervention of prayer. 
Lastly, the continual exercise of prayer nourishes 
the vigour of our intellect, and renders the 
receptacles of the soul far more capacious for 
the communications of the Gods. It likewise 
is the divine Jcey, which opens to men the pene- 
tralia of the Gods ; accustoms us to the splen- 
did rivers of supernal light; in a short time 
perfects our inmost recesses, and disposes them 
for the ineflfable embrace and contact of the 
Gods ; and does not desist till it raises us to 
the summit of all. It also gradually and silently 
draws upward the manners of our soul, by 
divesting them of every thing foreign to a divine 
nature, and clothes us with the perfections of 
the Gods. Besides this, it produces an in- 
dissoluble communion and friendship with di- 
vinity, nourishes a divine love, and inflames 
the divine part of the soul. Whatever is of an 
opposing and contrary nature in the soul, it 



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expiates and purifies ; expels whatever is prone 
to generation, and retains any thing of the dregs 
of mortality in its etherial and splendid spirit ; 
perfects a good hope and faith concerning the 
reception of divine light; and, in one word, 
renders those by whom it is employed the 
familiars and domestics of the Gods. If such, 
then, are the advantages of prayer, and such 
its connexion with sacrifice, does it not appear 
from hence that the end of sacrifice is a con- 
junction with the Demiurgus of the world? 
And the benefit of prayer is of the same extent 
with the good which is conferred by the demi- 
urgic causes on the race of mortals. Again, 
from hence the anagogicy perfective, and re- 
plenishing power of prayer appears; likewise 
how it becomes efficacious and unific; and 
how it possesses a common bond imparted by 
the Gods. And, in the third and last place, it 
may easily be conceived from hence how prayer 
and sacrifice mutually corroborate and confer 
on each other a sacred and perfect power in 
divine concerns. 

Hence, since it appears that there is a per- 
fect conspiration and cooperation of the sacer- 
dotal discipline with itself, and that the parts 
of it are more connascent than those of any 
animal, being entirely conjoined through one 



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274 

connexion ; this being the case, it is not by any 
means proper to neglect this concord, nor to 
admit some of its parts and reject others ; but 
it is fit that all of them should be exercised in a 
similar manner, and that those should be per- 
fected through all of them who wish to be 
genuinely conjoined to the Gods. These things 
therefore, cannot subsist otherwise. 



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SECTION VI. 



CHAP. I. 

It is now, however, time for me to pass on to the 
next doubt which you propose, viz. " Why it is 
requisite that the inspector [who presides over 
sacred rites'] ought not to touch a dead body, 
though most sacred operations are performed 
through dead bodies ? " Again, therefore, that 
we may dissolve this doubt, we shall direct 
our attention to this apparent opposition; for 
there is not in reality any, but these things 
alone seem to subsist contrarily. For if the 
laws of sacred rites ordered that the same dead 
bodies should not be touched and should be 
touched, this would be a thing contrary to 
itself But if they order that some dead bodies 
should be abstained from as impure, but that 
others which are consecrated should be touched, 
this is not attended with any contrariety. Far- 
ther still, it is not lawful to touch human 
bodies when the soul has left them, since a cer- 
tain vestige, image, or representation of divine 

2 T 



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life is extinguished in the body by death. But 
it is no longer unholy to touch other dead 
bodies, because they did not [when living] par- 
ticipate of a more divine life. To other Gods, 
therefore, who are pure from matter, our not 
touching dead bodies is adapted ; but to those 
Gods who preside over animals, and are proxi- 
mately connected with them, invocation through 
animals is properly made. According to this, 
therefore, no contrariety takes place. 



CHAP. II. 



After another manner, also, this doubt may be 
dissolved. For in men, indeed, who are de- 
tained in matter, bodies deprived of life pro- 
duce a certain stain ; because that which is 
not alive inserts a certain defilement in that 
which is living, in the same manner as the im- 
pure in that which is pure, and that which is in 
privation in that which is in habit; and also 
because that which is dead produces a certain 
pollution, through a physical aptitude to a 
worse condition, in consequence of having pos- 
sessed the power of dying. But a dead body 
cannot produce any defilement in a dsemon 
who is perfectly incorporeal, and does not re- 
ceive any corruption. For it is necessary that 



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he should transcend a corruptible body, and 
not participate of any representation of cor- 
ruption from it. And thus much in answer to 
the contrariety of the doubt. 



CHAP. III. 



In the next place we shall explain how divi- 
nation is effected through sacred animals, such, 
for instance, as hawks. We must never say, 
therefore, that the Gods accede through bodies 
that are thus procured, being employed. For 
they do not preside over animals, either parti- 
bly, or proximately, or materially, or with a 
certain habitude towards them. But to daemons 
and these such as are very much divided, to 
different orders of whom different animals are 
allotted, and who proximately exercise a govern- 
ment of this kind, and do not obtain their 
proper dominion in a way perfectly indepen- 
dent and immaterial, such a contact with the 
organs of divination must be ascribed. Or, if 
some one is willing so to admit, a seat must be 
attributed to them, through which we may be 
able to associate with and employ them. It is 
necessary, therefore, to think that this seat 
should be pure from bodies. For there can 
be no communion whatever between the pure 



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and its contrary ; but it is reasonable to admit 
that this seat is conjoined with men, through 
the soul of animals. For this soul has a certain 
aUiance to men, through homogeneity of life ; 
but it is allied to daemons, because, being libe- 
rated from body, it has in a certain respect a 
separate subsistence. Hence, being a medium 
between both, it is subservient to its presiding 
daemon, but announces to those who are yet 
detained in body that which its prefect com- 
mands. And it imparts to both these a com- 
mon bond with each other. 



CHAP. IV. 



It is necessary, however, to think that the soul 
which uses divination of this kind, not only 
becomes an auditor of the prediction, but also 
contributes in no small degree from itself to 
the consummation of it, and of what pertains 
to its operations. For this soul is coexcited 
and cooperates, and at the same time fore- 
knows, through a certain necessary sympathy. 
Such a mode, therefore, of divination as this 
is entirely different from the divine and true 
mode, being alone able to predict respecting 
small and diurnal concerns, viz. respecting such 
as being placed in a divided nature, are borne 



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along about generation, and which impart mo- 
tions from themselves to those things that are 
able to receive them, and produce multiform 
passions in things which are naturally adapted 
to be copassive. Perfect foreknowledge, how- 
ever, can never be effected through passion. 
For that which is itself especially immutable, 
immaterial, and entirely pure, is accustomed 
to apprehend the future; but that which is 
mingled with the most irrational and dark 
nature of a corporeal-formed and material 
essence is filled with abundant ignorance. An 
artificial apparatus, therefore, of this kind does 
not deserve to be called divination ; nor is it 
proper to bestow much attention upon it, nor 
to believe in any other person who uses it, as 
if it possessed in itself a certain clear and 
known indication of truth. And thus much 
concerning divination of this kind. 



CHAP. V. 



Let us, therefore, now discuss another species 
of doubts, the cause of which is occult, and 
which, as you say, is accompanied with '^vio- 
lent threats" But it is variously divided about 
the multitude of threats. ^^For it threatens 
either to hurst the heavens, or to unfold the 



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secrets of Isis, or to point out the arcanum in 
the adytum* or to stop Baris, or to scatter the 
members of Osiris to Typhon, or to do something 
else of the like kind.'' Men do not, however, 
as you think, threaten by such words as these 
the sun or the moon, or any of the celestial 
Gods; for if they did, more dire absurdities 
would ensue than those which you lament. 
But, as we before observed, there is a certain 
genus of powers in the world which is partible, 
inconsiderate, and most irrational, and which 
receives reason from another, and is obedient 
to it ; neither itself employing a proper intelli- 
gence, nor distinguishing what is true and 
false, or what is possible or impossible. A genus, 
therefore, of this kind, when threatenings are 
extended, is immediately coexcited and asto- 
nished, because, as it appears to me, it is natu- 
rally adapted to be led by representations, and 
to allme other things, through an astounded 
and unstable phantasy. 

* The conjecture of Gale, that for yj ro ev Aj8v8y in this 
place, we should read ij to €v aSvr^, is, I have no doubt, 
right. For the highest order of intelligibles is denominated 
by Orpheus the adytum, as we are informed by Proclus in 
Tim. By the arcanum in the adytum, therefore, is meant 
the deity who subsists at the extremity of the intelligible 
order (t. e. Phanes) ; and of whom it is said in the Chaldean 
Oracles, ** that he remains in the paternal profundity, and in 
the adytum, near to the god-nourished silence." 



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CHAP. VI. 

These things also admit of another explanation 
of the following kind. The theurgist, through 
the power of arcane signatures, commands 
mundane natures, no longer as man, nor as 
employing a human soul ; but as existing supe- 
rior to them in the order of the Gods, he makes 
use of greater mandates than pertain to him- 
self, so far as he is human. This, however, 
does not take place as if he eflfected every 
thing which he vehemently threatens to accom- 
plish; but he teaches us by such a use of 
words the magnitude and quality of the power 
which he possesses through a union with the 
Gods, and which he obtains from the knowledge 
of arcane symbols. This, likewise, may be 
said, that the daemons who are distributed ac- 
cording to parts, and who guard the parts of 
the universe, pay so much attention to the 
parts over which they preside, that they cannot 
endure a word contrary [to the safety of these], 
but they preserve the permanency of mundane 
natures immutable. They preserve this per- 
manency, therefore, in an unchanged condition, 
because the order of the Gods remains invaria- 
bly the same. Hence they cannot endure even 
to hear that threatened in which the aerial and 
terrestrial daemons have their existence. 



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CHAP. VII. 

Or this thing may likewise be explained as 
follows : Daemons preside with a guardian 
power over arcane mysteries, and this in so 
remarkable a degree, because the orderly dis- 
tribution of things in the universe is primarily 
contained in daemons. For the parts of the 
universe remain in order, because the benefi- 
cent power of Osiris continues sacred and un- 
defiled, and is not mingled with any opposing 
error and perturbation. The life of all things 
likewise remains pure and incorruptible, be- 
cause the occult vivific beauties of the produc- 
tive principles in Isis do not descend into body 
which is bom along,* and is the object of 
sight. But all things continue immoveable and 
perpetual, because the course of the sun is 
never stopped. And all things remain perfect 
and entire, because the arcana in the adytum t 
axe never disclosed. Hence, in those particu- 
lars in which the whole of things possesses its 
safety, I mean in arcana being always preserved 
occult, and in the inefiable essence of the 
Gods, never receiving a contrary condition ; in 
these, terrestrial daemons cannot endure, even 

* For CIS TO <f>aivo[i€vov Kai op(0[i€vov a-tofia, I read ci9 to 

<t>€pOfJ^OV K. T. A. 

t Here too for Aj8v3y I read oSvry. 



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283 

in words, to hear that they subsist otherwise 
than they do, or that they become profaned ; 
and on this account threatening language has a 
certain power when employed against them. 
No one, however, threatens the Gods, nor is 
such a mode of invocation addressed to them. 
Hence with the Chaldeans, by whom words 
used to the Gods alone are preserved distinct 
and pure, no threats are employed. But the 
Egyptians, mingling dsemoniacal words with 
divine signatures, sometimes employ threats. 
You have, therefore, an answer to these doubts, 
concise indeed, but I think sufficiently free from 
error. 



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SECTION VIL 



CHAP. I. 

The doubts also that follow in the next place 
require for their solution the assistance of the 
same divinely-wise Muse. But I am desirous, 
previous to this, to unfold to you the pecu- 
liarity of the theology of the Egyptians. For 
they, imitating the nature of the universe, and 
the fabricative energy of the Gods, exhibit 
certain images through symbols of mystic, 
occult, and invisible intellections ; just as na- 
ture, after a certain manner, expresses invisible 
reasons [or productive powers] through visible 
forms. But the fabricative energy of the Gods 
delineates the truth of forms, through visible 
images. Hence the Egyptians, perceiving that 
all superior natures rejoice in the similitude to 
them of inferior beings, and thus wishing to 
fill the latter with good, through the greatest 
possible imitation of the former, very properly 
exhibit a mode of theologizing adapted to the 
mystic doctrine concealed in the symbols. 



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CHAP. II. 

Hear, therefore, the intellectual interpretation 
of symbols, according to the conceptions of the 
Egyptians; at the same time removing from 
your imagination and your ears the image of 
things symbolical, but elevating yourself to in- 
tellectual truth. By *'mtVe," therefore, under- 
stand every thing corporeal-formed and mate- 
rial ; or that which is nutritive and prolific ; or 
such as the material species of nature is, which 
is borne along in conjunction with the unstable 
flux of matter; or a thing of such a kind as 
that which the river of generation receives, and 
which subsides together with it; or the pri- 
mordial cause of the elements, and of all the 
powers distributed about the elements, and 
which must be antecedently conceived to exist 
analogous to a foundation. Being, therefore, a 
thing of this kind, the God who is the cause of 
generation, of all nature, and of all the powers 
in] the elements, as transcending these, and as 
being immaterial, incorporeal, and supernatural, 
unbegotten and impartible, wholly derived from 
himself, and concealed in himself, — this God 
precedes all things, and comprehends all things 
in himself. And because, indeed, he compre- 
hends all things, and imparts himself to all 



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mundane natures, he is from these unfolded 
into light. Because, however, he transcends 
all things, and is by himself expanded above 
them, on this account he presents himself to 
the view as separate, exempt, elevated, and 
expanded by himself above the powers and 
elements in the world. The following symbol, 
likewise, testifies the truth of this. For by 
the God " sitting above the lotiis,'' a transcen- 
dency and strength which by no means come 
into contact with the mire, are obscurely signi- 
fied, and also indicate his intellectual and em- 
pyrean empire. For every thing belonging to 
the lotus is seen to be circular, viz. both the form 
of the leaves and the fruit ; and circulation is 
alone allied to the motion of intellect, which 
energizes with invariable sameness, in one order, 
and according to one reason. But the God is 
established by himself, and above a dominion 
and energy of this kind, venerable and holy, 
superexpanded, and abiding in himself, which 
his being seated is intended to signify. When 
the God, also, is represented as " sailing in a 
ship,''* it exhibits to us the power which 

* Conformably to tMs^ Martianus Capella also, in lib. ii 
De Nuptiis PhUoL &c. speaking of the sun, says, ''Ibi 
quandam navim, totius naturae cursus diversa cupiditate 
moderantem, cunct^ue flammarum congestione plenissi- 
mam, et beatis circumactam merdbus conspicatur. Cui 



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governs the world. As, therefore, the pilot 
being separate from the ship presides over the 
rudder of it, thus the sun having a separate 
subsistence, governs the helm of the whole 
world. And as the pilot directs all things 
from the stem, giving from himself a small 
principle of motion to the vessel; thus, also, 
by a much greater priority, the God indivisibly 
imparts supemally from the first principles 
of nature, the primordial causes of motions. 
These particulars, therefore, and still more 
than these, are indicated by the God sailing 
in a ship. 

nautse septem^ germani tamen, suique similes prsesidebant 
in prora. Praesidebat in prora felis forma depicta^ leonis in 
arbore, crocodili in extimo." For these animals, the cat, 
the lion, and the crocodile were peculiarly sacred to the sun. 
Martianus adds, "In eadem vero rate, fons quidem lucis 
setherese, arcanisque fluoribus manans,in totius mundi lumina 
fundebatur." f. e. " In the same ship there was a fountain 
of etherial light flowing with arcane streams, which were 
poured into all the luminaries of the world." Porphyry, 
likewise, in his treatise De Antro N3rmph. says, " that the 
Egyptians placed the sun and all daemons not connected 
with any thing solid or stable, but raised on a sailing 
vessel." 



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CHAP. III. 

Since, however, every part of the heavens, 
every sign of the zodiac,* all the motion of the 
heavens, every period of time according to 
which the world is moved, and all things con- 
tained in the wholes of the universe, receive 
the powers which descend from the sun, some 
of which are complicated with these wholes, 
but others transcend a commixture with them, 
the symbolical mode of signification represents 
these also, indicating " that the sun is diverst- 
Jied according to the signs of the zodiac, and 
that every hour he changes his form.'' At the 
same time, also, it indicates his immutable, 
stable, never failing, and at once collected 
communication of good to the whole world. 
But since the recipients of the impartible gift 
of the God are variously affected towards it, 
and receive multiform powers from the sun, 
according to their peculiar motions, hence the 
symbolical doctrine evinces through the multi- 
tude of the gifts, that the God is one, and ex- 
hibits his one power through multiform powers. 
Hence, likewise, it says that he is one and the 



* In the original irav fwStov, which Gale erroneously 
translates animalia omnia. 



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289 

same, but that the yicissitiides of his form, and 
his configurations, must be admitted to exist 
in the recipients. On this account it asserts 
**that he is changed every hour, according 
to the signs of the zodiac," in consequence 
of these being variously changed about the 
God, according to the many modes by which 
they receive him. The Egyptians use prayers 
to the sun, conformable to these assertions, not 
only in visions which are seen by the bodily 
eyes, but also in their more common supplica- 
tions, all which have such a meaning as this, 
and are offered to the God conformably to a 
symbolic and mystic doctrine of this kind. 
Hence it would not be reasonable in any one 
to undertake a defence of them. 



CHAP. IV. 



But the inquiries which follow in the next 
place, require a more abundant doctrine, in 
order to their elucidation, (it the same time, 
however, it is necessary to discuss the truth 
concerning them with brevity. For you in- 
quire " what efficacy there is in names that are 
not significant.'** They are not, however, as 

* Of this kind are the following names in Alexand. Tral*- 
Jian. lib, ii. Mcv, 0/ocv, Mo/), ^op, Tcv^, Za, Zwv, 0c, Aov, 

U 



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290 

you think, without signification ; but let them 
be indeed unknown to us (though some of 
them are known to us, the explications of 
which we receive from the Gods), yet to the 
Gods all of them are significant, though not 
according to an effable mode; nor in such a 
way as that which is significant and indicative 
with men through imaginations; but either 
intellectually, conformably to the divine intel- 
lect which is in us ; or ineffably, and in a way 
more excellent and simple, and conformably to 
the intellect which is united to the Gods. It 
is requisite, therefore, to take away all con- 
ceptions derived by an abstraction from sen- 
sibles, and all logical evolutions from divine 
names ; * and likewise the connascent physical 

Xpi, Fc Zc, 12v, L e. Meu, Tkreu, Mor, Phor, Teux, Za, 
Zan, The, Lou, Chri, Ge, Ze, On. By these names Alex- 
ander Trallianus says, the sun becomes fixed in the heavens. 
He adds, '' Again behold the great name lo^, (lege law), 
A(v<f>, Zvcuv, 6/5evJ, BalV, Xomdic, L e. lao, Azuph, Zuon, 
Threux, BdSn, Chook." Among the Latins, also, Cato, 
Varro, and Marcellus de Medicamentis Empiricis, there 
are examples of these names ; the power and efficacy of 
which, as Gale observes, are testified by history, though it is 
not easy to explain the reason of their operation. 

* Proclus, in commenting on the following words of Plato 
in the Timaeus, (see vol. L p. 228, of my translation of his 
Commentary), vis. "Let, therefore, this universe be de- 
nominated by Us all heaven, or the world, or whatever other 
appellation it may be especially adapted to receive," beauti- 



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291 

similitudes of language to things which exist 
in nature* But the intellectual and divine 

fully thus observes eonceming the divine name of the world. 
''As of statues established by the telestic art^ some things 
pertaining to them are manifest^ but others ar^ inwardly 
concealed^ being .symbolical of the presence of the Gods, 
and which are only known to the mystic artists themselves ; 
after the same manner, the world being a statue of the in- 
telligible, and perfected by the father, has indeed some 
things which are visible indications of its divinity; but 
others, which are the invisible impressions of the participa- 
tion of being received by it from the father, who gave it per- 
fection, in order that through these it may be eternally 
rooted in real being. Heaven, indeed, and the rvorld are 
names significant of the powers in the universe ; the latter, 
so far as it proceeds from the intelligible ; but the former, so 
far as it is converted to it. It is, however, necessaiy to 
know that the divine name of its abiding power, and which 
is a symbol of the impression of the Demiurgus, according 
to which it does not proceed out of being, is ineffable and 
arcane, and known only to the Gods themselves. For there 
are names adapted to every order of things ; those, indeed, 
that are adapted to divine natures being divine, to the objects 
6f dianoia being dianoetic, and to the objects of opinion 
doxastic. This also Plato says in the Cratylus, where he 
embraces what is asserted by Homer on this subject, who 
admits that names of the same things are with the Gods 
different from those that subsist in the opinions of men, 

X«Dt1inB by Grod, by men Scamander oall'd 

Iliad .XX. ▼. 74. 
And, 

Which the Gods Chalcis, men Cymindis call. 

Iliad xiv. v. 291. 

And in a similar manner in many other names. For as the 
knowledge of the Gods is different from that of partial souls, 

u2 



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292 

symbolical chaxacter of divine similitude must 
be admitted to have a subsistence in names. 
And, moreover, though it should be unknown 
to us, yet this very circumstance is that which 
is most venerable in it, for it is too excellent to 
be divided into knowledge. But in those 

thus also the names of the one are different from those of the 
other ; since divine names unfold the whole essence of the 
things named^ but those of men only partially come into con- 
tact with them. Plato, therefore, knowing that this pre- 
existed in the world, omits the divine and ineffable name 
itself, which is different from the apparent name, and with 
the greatest caution introduces it as a s3rmbol of the divine 
impression which the world contains. For the words, '* or 
whatever other appellation" and ''it may receive" are a 
latent h3rmn of the mundane name, as ineffable, and as 
allotted a divine essence, in order that it may be coordinate 
to what is signified by it. Hence, also, divine mundane 
names are delivered by Theurgists; some of which are 
called by them ineffable, but others effable ; and some being 
significant of the invisible powers in the world, but others of 
the visible elements from which it derives its completion. 
Through these causes, therefore, as h3rpotheses,the mundane 
form, the demiurgic cause and paradigm, and the apparent 
and unapparent name of the world are delivered. And the 
former name, indeed, is dyadic, but the latter monadic 
For the words "whatever other" are significant of oneness. 
You may also consider the ineffable name of the universe as 
significant of its abiding in the father ; but the name world, 
as indicative of its progression ; and heaven of its conversion. 
But through the three, you have the final cause, on account 
of which it is full of good ; abiding ineffably, proceeding 
perfectly, and converting itself to the good as the antecedent 
object of desire." 



V 



293 

names which we can scientifically analyze/ 
we possess a knowledge of the whole divine 
essence, power, and order, comprehended in 
the name. And farther still, we preserve in 
the soul collectively the mystic and arcane 
image of the Gods, and through this we elevate 
the soul to the Gods, and when elevated con- 
join it as much as possible with them. But 
you ask, " Why; of signijicomt names^ we prefer 
such as are Barbaric to our own f " Of this^ 
also, there is a mystic reason. For because 
the Gods have shown that the whole dialect of 
sacred nations, such as those of the Egyptians 
and Assyrians, is adapted to sacred concerns; 
on this account we ought to think it necessary 
that our conference with the Gods. should be 
in a language allied to them. Because, like* 
wise, such a mode of speech is the first and 
most ancient. And especially because those 
who first learned the names of the Gods, having 
mingled them with their own proper tongue, 
deUvered them to us, that we might always 
preserve immoveable the sacred law of tradition, 
in a language peculiar and adapted to them. 

* See the additional notes at the end of vol. v. of my 
translation of Plato, where many of these names are beauti- 
fully unfolded from the MS. Scholia of Proclus on the 
Cratylus. 



294 

For if any other thing pertains to the Grods, it 
is evident that the eternal and immutable must 
be allied to them. 



CHAP. V. 



You object, however, ** that he who hea/rs words 
looks to their signification, so that it is sufficient 
the conception remains the same, whatever the 
words may he that are used^^ But the thing is 
not such as you suspect it to be. For if names 
subsisted through compact * it would be of no 
consequence whether some were used instead 
of others. But if they are suspended from the 
nature of things, those names which are more 
adapted to it will also be more dear to the 
Gods. From this, therefore, it is evident that 
the language of sacred nations is very reason* 
ably preferred to that of other men. To which 
may be added, that names do not entirely pre- 
serve the same meaning when translated into 
another language; but there are certain idioms 

* See the additional notes at the end of voL v. of my 
translation of Plato, and also the notes to my translation of 
Aristotle de Interpretati<me, in which the reader wiD find a 
treasury of recondite information concerning names^ ftom 
Produs and Ammonius. ' 



2! 

in each nation which 
language to another na 
place, though it should 
them, yet they no Ion 
power when translate 
likewise, have much e 
nessy and participate of 
and multitude. Hence 
they are adapted to i 
Take away, therefore, e 
of yours which fall oflf 
he who is invoked is eit) 
the Egyptian language.^ 
as the Egyptians were 

* Most historians give the ] 
tians. And Lucian, in lib. I 
Egyptians are said to be the 
conception of the Gods, and a 1 

^They were also the first i 

names." Aiyvimot vpfuroi a 
vovriv XajSetv Kai ipa €ur<ur0ai' 
cyvoxrav. Conformably to thj 
quoted by Ensebios, says that 
that disclosed by infinite actic 
Gods. This oracle is as foUoi 

Aartnrq yap o3o$, fuucapon 
XoXko^ois ra wptara Bi 
ArpaiTiroi 5e wjoxt^v a^w 
As ir/oorroi fuponav ear a 

Oi TO KaXoV WlVOVT€S vBi 



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296 

mrere allotted the participatioii of the Gods, 
the Gods when invoked rejoice in the Sgjrp- 
tian rites. Again, however, if all these ^were 
the fraudulent devices of enchanters, how is it 
possible that things which are in the most 
eminent degree united to the Gods, which also 
conjoin us with them, and have powers all but 
equal to those of superior beings, should be 
phantastic devices, though without them no 
sacred operation can be effected 1 But neither 
•* do these veils [by which arcana are canoecded] 
originate from our passionsj which rumour cw- 

IloXXas Kai ^oiviiccs oBovs iMojcaptav c&nyorav, 
AoKrvpiof, Av8o£T€, Kai ^ppauav (lege XaXBauav) ycvo? 
avSpfov, 

i.e. " The path by which to deity we dimb. 
Is arduous, lough, ineffiible, sublime ; 
And the strong massy gates, through which we pass 
In our first course, are bound with chains of brass. 
Those men the first who of £g3rptian birth 
Drank the fidr water of Nilotic earth. 
Disclosed by actions infinite this road. 
And many paths to God Phcynicians show'd. 
This road th' Ass3rrians pointed out to view, 
' And this the Lydians and Chaldeans knew." 

For EPpawv in this oracle I read XoASauov, because I 
have no doubt that either Aristobulus the Jew, ivell known 
for interpolating the writings of the Heathens, or the wicked 
Eusebms, as he is called by the Emperor Julian, have firaradu 
lently substituted the former word for the latter. 




S97 

x>rihes to a divine nature 
from our passions, but, 
things allied to the G 
words adapted to them, 
conceptions of a divine 
real mode of subsistence: 
the nature which it poss< 
concerning it, which th< 
established the laws oi 
persevere in our concept 
if any thing else in religi 
adapted to the Gods, i 
immutability. And it is 
prayers* like sacred asy 
invariably the same, net 
from them, nor adding a 
is elsewhere derived. Fo: 
at present that both nai 
lost their efficacy, becaue 
changed through the in] 
of the Greeks. For the 
studious of novelty, ai 

* Prayers of this kind are su 
speaks in Tim. p. 65, when he 
is that which is offered for the 
originatingfirom pestilence^ and 
such as we have fvritien m ot 
(€vxai), eiTi avorpoirais Xoi/iiKi»} 
AvcT/UDV* ocas Se koi cv rots upoi\ 



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298 

every where by their volatility ; neither possess- 
ing any stability themselves^ nor preserving 
what they have received from others ; but 
rapidly relinquishing this, they transform every 
thing through an unstable desire of discovering 
something new. But the Barbarians are stable 
in their manners, and firmly continue to employ 
the same words. Hence they are dear to the 
Gods, and proffer words which are grateful 
to them; but which it is not lawful for any 
man by any means to change. And thus much 
we have said in answer to you concerning 
names, which though they are inexplicable, 
and are called Barbaric, yet are adapted to 
sacred concerns. 



\ 



L 



2S 



SECTIO: 



CHAl 

Leaving, therefore, thes 
in the next place that '. 
" What the Egyptians c 
to he; whether intellec 
whether alone^ or suhsu 
or others; whether incoi 
and whether it is the sam 
or is prior to the Demiurg 
all things are from one p 
principles; whether they 
matter.or of primary co 
whether they admit matt 
to he generated ? " I, the 
place relate to you the a 
of the ancient writers of 
and various opinions co 
are circulated, and also 
are still living, and ar< 
wisdom, the opinion oi 
simple and one. I say 




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300 

many essences, and these differing from each 
other, the all-various multitude of the princi- 
ples of these, and which have different orders, 
were delivered by different ancient priests, 
As Seleucus* narrates, therefore, Hernaes de- 
scribed the principles that rank as wholes in 
two myriads t of books ; or, as we are informed 
by Manetho|, he perfectly unfolded ttiese 
principles in three myriads six thousand five 
hundred and twenty five volumes. But diffe- 
rent ancient writers differently explained the 
partial principles of essences. It is necessary, 
however, by investigation to discover the truth 
about all these principles, and concisely to un- 
fold it to you as much as possible. And, in the 
first place, hear concerning that which is the 
first subject of your inquiry* 

* PorphyTyj in lib. ii. De Abstinentia, mentions Seleucus 
the theologistj and Suldas says that Seleucus the Alexan- 
drian wrote 100 books concerning the Gods, 

t These books (pi^koi) were most probably nothing' more 
than short discoursesj such as the treatises now are which 
are circulated as written by Hermes, and which, as lainbli- 
ehus informs us, contain Hermaic doctrines. 

I A great priest, a scribe of the Adyta in Egypt, by birtJt 
a Sebanite, and an inhabitant of Heliopolis, as he relates of 

himself. 



301 



CHAP 



Pbior to truly existing 
ciples [or principles that 
is one God, prior to [that 
believed to be] the first 
moveable, and abiding i 
own unity. For neither 
nected with him, nor an] 
established as the paradi 
the father of himself, is 
alone, and is truly good, 
even greater and prior 1 
of all things, and the roo 
forms. But from this o] 
is sufficient to himself, 
light. For this divinity 
and God of Gods, a moi 
to essence, and the prii 
from him entity and esi 
hence, also, he is denon: 
intelligibles. These, th 
ancient principles of all 

* In the original^ fl-pcDTOs icat 
which Gale translates^ prior eti 
But the addition of sole in his 
junappropriate and false : for h 
ing of a deity much superior t 



Ized by Google 



302 

arranges prior to the etherial, empyrean, and 
celestial Gods. He likewise delivered to us 
the history of the empyrean Gods in one hun- 
dred books ; of the etherial in an equal num- 
ber ; and of the celestial in a thousand books. 



CHAP. III. 



According to another order, however, he 
arranges the God Emeph* prior to, and as the 
leader of, the celestial Gods. And he says 
that this God is an intellect > itself intellectually 
perceiving itself, and converting intellectioiis to 
itself. But prior to this, he arranges the im- 
partible one, which he says is the first para- 
digm^ atid which he denominates EictOfi^ In 
this, alsoj is contained that which is first intel- 
lective, and the first intelligible, and which is to 
be worshiped through silence alone. Besides 
these, also, other leaders preside over the fabri- 
cation of visible natures^ For the demiurgic 
intellect, who is the curator of truth and wisdom, 
descending into generation, and leading the 
power of occult reasons into light, is called in 

* For H^^^ herCj Gale conjectures that we should read 
Kvrj<fi Kneph : for Plutarch says that the unbegotten Kneph 
vtSi& celebrated with an extraordinary degree of reneration 
by the Egyptian Thebana 



SOS 

the Egyptian tongue Amon; but in conse- 
quence of perfecting all things with veracity 
and artificially, he is called Ptha, The Greeks, 
however, assume Ptha for Vulcan, solely direct- 
ing their attention to the artificial peculiarity of 
the God. So far, also, as he is effective of 
good he is called Osiris ; and he has other 
appellations through other powers and ener- 
gies. With the Egjrptians, therefore, there is 
another domination of the whole elements in 
generation, and of the powers contained in 
them ; four of these powers being male and 
four female, which they attribute to the sun. 
And there is, likewise, another government of 
the whole of nature about generation, which 
they assign to the moon.* But dividing the 
heavens into two, or four, or twelve, or six-and- 
thirty parts, or the doubles of these, they give 
to the parts a greater or less number of rulers. 
And over all these they place one ruler, who 
transcends all the rest Thus, therefore, the 
doctrine of the Egyptians concerning princi- 
ples, proceeding from on high as far as to the 
last of things, begins from one principle, and 
descends to a multitude which is governed by 
this one ; and every where an indefinite nature 

* Hence the moon is said by Proclus to be avroTirov rqs 
<l>vcr€b}s ayakfm, the self-visible statue or image of nature. 



304 

is under the dominion of a certain definite 
measure, and of the supreme unical cause of 
all things. But God produced matter by di- 
viding materiality from essentiality ; * and this 
being vital, the Demiurgus receiving, fabricated 
from it the simple and impassive spheres. But 
he distributed in an orderly manner the last of 
it into generable and corruptible bodies. 



CHAR IV. 



These things, therefore, having been accurately 
discussed, the solution of the doubts which you 
have met with in certain books will be mani- 
fest. For the books which are circulated under 
the r^me of Hermes contain Hermaic opinionsj 
though they frequently employ the language of 
the philosophers : for they were translated from 
the Egyptian tongue hy men who were not un- 

* Proclus in Tim, p. 111, cites what is here said ss the 
doctrine of the Egyptians, and also cites for it the authority 
of lamblichus. But his words are^ koll /iijv Kai -tj rwv 

o yt TOi ^tiO? lafjLpXL)^o<s i'^of3ffjtr€V ort teat Ep/tijs tK TiyS 
oixrtOTijTos TJjv vXoTTjTa ^apay€(r$ak ^ovXcrat t. e. " More^ 
over the doctrine of the Egyptians asserts the same things 
concerning matter. For the divine lamblichus relates that 
Hermes also produces matter from essentiality," 



■ 



305 

skilled in philosophy. But Chseremon,* and 
any others who have at all discussed the first 
causes of mundane natures, have unfolded the 
last rulers of these. And such as have written 
concerning the planets, the zodiac, the decans, 
horoscopes, and what are called powerful and 
leading planets, these have unfolded the parti- 
ble distributions of the rulers. The particulars, 
also, contained in the Calendars comprehend a 
certain very small part of the Hermaic arrange- 
ments. And the causes of such things as per- 
tain to the phases or occulations of the stars, 
or to the increments and decrements of the 
moon, are assigned by the Egyptians the last 
of all. The Egyptians, likewise, do not say 
that all things are physical. For they separate 
the life of the soul and the intellectual life from 
nature, not only in the universe, but also in us. 
And admitting intellect and reason to subsist 
by themselves, they say that generated essences 
were thus fabricated. They likewise arrange 
the Demiurgus as the primary father of things 
in generation ; and they acknowledge the ex- 

* This is most probably the Chaeremon who is said by 
Porphyry, in lib. iv. De Abstinentia, " to be a lover of truth, 
an accurate writer, and very conversant with the Stoic phi- 
losophy." Totavra fi€v ra Kar AiyvTrriovs W avBpos ^i- 
XaXrjOovs T€ icai a/</oij3ovs, evre rots StcdiVcoi? TpayfiariKw^ 
rara <l>iXocro<fyrj<ravTOS ficfiafyrvprjficva, 

X 



306 

istence of a vital power^ prior to the heavens, 
and subsisting in the heavens- They also 
establish a pure intellect above the world, and 
one impartible intellect in the whole world, 
and another which is distributed into all the 
spheres. And these things they do not survey 
by mere reason alone, but through the sacer- 
dotal theurgy, they announce that they are 
able to ascend to more elevated and universal 
essences^ and to those that are established 
above Fate, viz. to God and the Demiurgus ; 
neither employing matter, nor assuming any 
other thing besides, except the observation of a 
suitable time. 



CHAP. V. 



This del fie and anagogic path Hermes, indeed, 
narrated, but Bitys, the prophet of King Am- 
mon,^ explained it, having found it in the adyta 
of Saist in Egypt, written in hieroglyphics; 

* This was the ninth king in the twenty-sixth dynasty of 
the S^bm kings* 

t This city is mentioned by Plato in the Timseus, who 
represents Cntias as saying " that there is a certain region 
of Egypt, called Delta^ about the summit of which the 
streams of the Nile are divided^ and in which there is a 
province called SaiticaL" He adds, " of this province the 



307 

and the same prophet also delivered the name 
of God, which pervades through the whole 
world.* But there are, likewise, many other 
coarrangements of the same things; so that 
you do not appear to me to act rightly in re- 
ferring all things with the Egyptians to physi- 
cal causes. For there are, according to them, 
many principles and many essences; and also 
supermundane powers, which they worship 
through sacerdotal sanctimony. To me, there- 
fore, these things appear to afford common 
auxiliaries to the solution of all the remaining 

greatest city is Sais^ from which also King Amasis derived 
his origin. The city has a presiding divinity^ whose name 
is, in the Egyptian tongue, Neith, but in the Greek Athena, 
or Minerva." It is singular that Gale, who is not deficient 
in philology, though but a smatterer in philosophy, shoidd 
have omitted to remark in his notes this passage of Plato. 

* Proclus, in MS. Comment, in Alcibiad. cites one of the 
Chaldean oracles, which says, 

TTOpdfllOV OVVOfJM TO 8* €V aTTCipOi? 



Koor/iOiS evdpdHTKOV, 

i, e. *' There is a transmitting name which leaps into the in- 
finite worlds." And in his MS. Scholia in Cratyl. he quotes 
another of these oracles, viz, 

AWa €^LV ovvofia (refxvov aKOLfirfri^ «'/»o</>aAiyyi, 
Koor/JiOis tvOfma-KOV^ Kpaiirvqv Sia warpos cvtinyv. 

L e. " There is a venerable name with a sleepless revolution, 
leaping into the worlds through the rapid reproofs of the 
father." 

x2 



inquiries. But 
leave any one o 
add them to the 
on all sides, in 
there is any thii 



You say, therefc 
the Egyptians, 
pends on the n 
truth, however, 
sary to unfold 
ceptions. For 
two souls. An 
the first intelli 
power of the D 
parted from the 
dies, to which 
These things, 
soul that desce 
lows the periods 
is intelligibly 
transcends the { 
this a liberatio] 
the intelligible 
urgy, likewise, £ 
is perfected con 



I 



/Google 



309 



CHAP. VII. 

Hence that of which you are dubious is not 
true, 'Hhat all things are hound with the in- 
dissoluble bonds of Necessity" which we call 
Fate. For the soul has a proper principle of 
circumduction to the intelligible, and of a sepa- 
ration from generated natures; and also of a 
contact with real being, and that which is di- 
vine. " Nor must we ascribe fate to the Gods, 
whom we worship in temples and statues, as the 
dissolvers of fate" For the Gods, indeed, dis- 
solve fate ; but the last natures which proceed 
from them, and are complicated with the gene- 
ration of the world and with body, give com- 
pletion to fate. Hence we very properly wor- 
ship the Gods with all possible sanctity, and 
the observance of all religious rites, in order 
that they may liberate us from the evils im- 
pending from fate, as they alone rule over 
necessity through intellectual persuasion. But 
neither are all things comprehended* in the 
nature of fate, but there is another principle of 
the soul, which is superior to all nature and 
generation, and through which we are capable 
of being united to the Gods, of transcending 

* For cxerai in this place^ I read ir€pi€\€Tai, 



310 

the mundane order, and of participating eternal 
life, and the energy of the supercelestial Gods. 
Through this principle, therefore, we are able 
to liberate ourselves from fate. For when the 
more excellent parts of us energize, and the 
soul is elevated to natures better than itself,* 
then it is entirely separated from things which 
detain it in generation, departs from subor- 
dinate natures, exchanges the present for an- 
other life, and gives itself to another order of 
things, entirely abandoning the former order 
with which it was connected. 



CHAP. VIII. 



What then, is it not possible for a man to 
liberate himself [from fate] through the Gods 
that revolve in the heavens, and to consider 
the same as the leaders of fate, and yet as 

* Gale, in his translation of this part, has entirely mis- 
taken the meaning of lamblichus^ which he frequently does 
in other places. For the words of lamblichus are, orav yap 
&ri ra jScAriova tcdv cv rifiiv €V€pyyj Kai vpos ra Kp€iTrova 
avayerai airnys fj ^X*? > ^"^^ *^® version of Gale is " quando 
enim pars nostri melior operari incipiat, et ad sui portionem 
meliorem recolligatur anima." For ra Kpeirrova is not the 
better part of the soul ; but when the better parts of the soul 
energize, the soul is then intimately converted to itself, and 
through this conversion is elevated to superior natures. 



311 

those that bind our lives with indissoluble 
bonds ? Perhaps nothing prevents this from 
being the case. For if the Gods comprehend 
in themselves many essences and powers, there 
are also in them other immense differences and 
contrarieties. Moreover, this also may be said, 
that in each of the Gods, though such as 
are visible, there are certain intelligible princi- 
ples through which a liberation to souls from 
mundane generation is effected. But if some 
one leaves only two genera of Gods, viz. the 
mundane and supermundane, the liberation to 
souls will be effected through the supermun- 
dane Gods. These things, therefore, are more 
accurately discussed in our treatise Concerning 
the Gods^ in which it is shown who are the ana- 
gogic Gods, and according to what kind of 
powers they are so ; how they liberate from 
fate, and through what sacred regressions ; and 
what the order is of mundane nature, and how 
the most perfect intellectual energy rules over 
this. So that what you add from Homer, ''that 
the Gods are flexible," it is not holy to assert. 
For the works of the sacred ceremonies of re- 
ligion have long since been defined by pure and 
intellectual laws. Subordinate natures, also, 
are liberated through a greater order and 
power ; and when we abandon inferior natures, 
we are transferred into a more excellent allot- 



312 



\ 



ment- This, however, is not effected contrar)^ 
to any original sacred law, so as to cause the 
Gods to be changed, through a sacred operation 
being afterwards performed ; but from the first 
divinity seat souls hither, in order that they 
might again return to him. Neither, there forej 
is any mutation produced through a re ascent 
of this kind, nor do the descents and ascents of 
souls oppose each other. For as generation 
and this universe are suspended from an intel- 
lectual essence; thus^ also, in the orderly dis- 
tribution of souls, the liberation from generation 
accords with the care employed by them about 
generation- 



1 ■ '^ 



313 



SECTION IX. 



CHAP. I. 

Let us now, therefore, to the utmost of our 
power, endeavour to discuss the manifold doubt 
concerning the peculiar daemon, and which also 
is subject to various objections. Since, how- 
ever, to speak summarily, the consideration 
of the peculiar daemon is twofold, the one being 
theurgic, but the other artificial ; and the one 
drawing this daemon down from supernal causes, 
but the other from the visible periods in gene- 
ration ; and the one making no use whatever 
of the calculation of nativities, but the other 
meddling with methods of this kind ; and the 
one worshiping this daemon in a way more 
universal and supernatural, but the other parti- 
bly conformable to nature; this being the 
case, you appear to me to have absurdly trans- 
ferred a more perfect sacred operation to one 
that is human, and in this to have exercised 
your inquiries. 



314 



CHAP. II. 

In the next place, here also you appear to me 
to have cut off only a certain small part of the 
discussion concerning the peculiar dsemon. 
For since it is usual with those who artificially 
operate about nature to invoke this deeinon in 
an orderly manner from the decans, from the 
dispensators of influxes, from the signs of the 
zodiac, the stars, the sun and moon, from the 
greater and lesser bear, from the whole ele- 
ments, and from the world, this being the case, 
you do not act rightly in assuming one, and 
that the smallest part of all these, viz. the lord 
of the geniture, and making your inquiries 
about this alone. Here, likewise, again from 
one of the things proposed to be considered, 
you inquire ^'how the lord of the geniture gives 
the peculiar dcemon, and according to what 
kind of efflux, or life, or power, it descends to 
upfront him^ You also speak concerning the 
calculation of nativities, and ask '^whether 
there is any reality in it or not ; " and likewise 
concerning the invention of the lord of the 
geniture, *^ whether it is impossible to he found, 
or possible.*^ In what respect, however, do 
these things pertain to the domination of the 
daemon ? For it is evident that our knowledge 



315 

of the manner in which he subsists, contributes 
nothing to his essence and the cause of his 
existence. For in things which belong to the 
empire of nature, such as are generated in the 
universe have a proper stability of their own 
essence, though we should be ignorant how 
they are produced. In this way, therefore, we 
reply in common to your doubts. But direct- 
ing our attention particularly to the subjects 
of your inquiry, we shall endeavour to give you 
solutions of them. 



CHAP. HI. 



You say, then, ''that he is happy who having 
learned the scheme of his nativity, and knowing 
his proper dwmon, is thus liberated from fater 
To me, however, you appear to assert these 
things in a way neither consonant to themselves 
nor to truth. For if our proper daemon is 
distributed to us from the scheme of our na- 
tivity, and from thence we are able to discover 
him, how can we he liberated from fate^ through 
a knowledge of the daemon imparted to us by 
fate ? But if, as you say, we are truly liberated 
from necessity through this daemon, how is he 
allotted to us by fate? Thus, therefore, what 
is now said by you opposes what you before 



316 

asserted; and is also discordant with truth. 
For the proper daemon of every one does not 
entirely accede from the scheme of the peculiar 
nativity; but his origin is more ancient than 
this, which we shall hereafter discuss. To 
which may be added, that if the descending 
daemon was to be alone surveyed from lience, 
he will not be happy who obtains the know- 
ledge of his genesiurgic daemon. And who 
would [willingly] receive this daemon as his 
leader to a liberation from fate, if he was given 
to him for this purpose, that he might accom- 
plish the distributions of fate? Farther still, 
this appears to me to be only a certain and the 
last part of the theory pertaining to this daemon ; 
and that the whole theory of his essence is 
omitted by a method of this kind. But these 
things, indeed, though they are falsely asserted, 
yet at the same time are not utterly foreign 
from the purpose. The doubts, however, ad- 
duced by you in the next place, concerning 
" the enumeration of the canons and the geneth- 
lialogical science,*^ as they are inscrutable, are 
not attended with any ambiguity in the present 
discussion. For whether these arts are known 
or are incomprehensible, yet, at the same time, 
the efflux from the stars distributes to us the 
daemon, whether we know it or not. But 
divine divination is able to teach us concern^ 



317 

ing the stars, in a way which is most true, 
and [when we are in possession of this] we are 
not entirely in want of the enumeration of 
canons, or of the divining art 



CHAP. IV. 



If, however, it be necessary, dismissing these 
particulars, to speak what appears to me to be 
the truth, you do not rightly infer " that a know- 
ledge of this mathematical science "^ cannot he 
obtained^ because there is much dissonance con- 
cerning it, or because Chwremon, or some other, 
has written against it" For if this reason 
were admitted, all things will be incompre- 
hensible. For all sciences have ten thousand 
controvertists, and the doubts with which they 
are attended are innumerable. As, therefore, 
we are accustomed to say in opposition to the 
contentious, that contraries in things that are 
true are naturally discordant, and that it is not 
falsities alone that are hostile to each other; 
thus, also, we say respecting this mathematical 
science, that it is indeed true; but that those 
who wander from the scope of it, being ignorant 
of the truth, contradict it. This, however 

* Viz. The science of calculating nativities. 



1 



318 

happens not in this science alone, but likewise 

in all the sciences, which are imparted by the 

I Gods to men. For time always proceeding 

4 the divine mode of knowledge becomes evan- 

I escent, through being frequently mingled and 

contaminated with much of what is mortal. 

This divine mode is indeed [in astrology also], 

and a certain clear indication of truth, though 

1 it is but small, is at the same time preserved in 

it. For it places before our eyes manifest 

signs of the mensuration of the divine periods, 

/] when it predicts the eclipses of the sun and 

moon, and the concursions* of the moon with 
the fixed stars, and when the experience of the 
sight is seen to accord with the prediction. 
Moreover^ the observations of the celestial bodies 
through the whole of time^\ both by the Chal- 
deans and by us, testify that this science is true. 
Indications, also, more known than these might 
be adduced, if the present discussion was 
precedaneously about these particulars. But 



^. 



* i. e. The joint risings and settings. 

t t. e. Through a period of 300,000 years ; and ProcL in 
Tim. lib. iv. p. 277, informs us that the Chaldeans had obser- 
vations of the stars which embraced whole mundane periods. 
What Proclus likewise asserts of the Chaldeans is confirmed 
by Cicero in his first book on Divination, who says that they 
had records of the stars for the space of 370,000 years ; and 
by Diodorus Siculus, Bibl. lib. xi. p. 118, who says that their 
observations comprehended the space of 473,000 years. 



319 

as they are superfluous, and do not pertain to 
the knowledge of the peculiar daemon, I shall, 
as it is fit so to do, omit them, and pass on to 
things more appropriate than these. 



CHAP. V. 



You say then, in your epistle, " that the dis- 
covery of the lord or lords of the geniture, if 
there are more than mie in a nativity, can scarcely 
be obtained, and by astrologers themselves is con- 
fessed to be unattainable ; and yet they say that 
the peculiar dcemon is from thence to be knoum" 
But how can astrologers confess that the know- 
ledge of the lord of the geniture is not to be 
obtained by them, when they deliver clear 
methods for the discovery of it, and teach us 
rules by which we may discover the doubts; 
some, indeed, giving us five,^ others more and 
others less than five rules? Omitting this, 
however, let us direct our attention to a thing 
of greater consequence, viz. the accidents per- 

* " We say/' says Hephestion^ ''that a star is the lord of 
the geniture, which has Bve conditions of the lord of the 
nativity in the horoscope ; viz, if that star receives the lumi- 
naries in their proper boundaries, in their proper house, in 
their proper altitude, and in the proper triangle." He also 
adds, ''and if besides it has contact, effluxion, and configura- 
'tion." See likewise Porphyry in Ptolemsum, p. 191. 



320 

taining to both these. For if it is possible to 
discover the lord of the geniture, the dsemon 
imparted by him will be known ; but if this 
knowledge is unattainable, we shall be ignorant 
of the lord of the geniture according to this 
hypothesis, and yet, nevertheless, he will have 
an existence, and also the daemon imparted by 
him. What therefore hinders, but that the dis- 
covery of him may be difficult through predic- 
tion from the nativity, and yet through sacred 
divination, or theurgy, there may be a great 
abundance of scientific knowledge on this sub- 
ject? In short, the daemon is not alone im- 
parted by the lord of the geniture, but there 
are many other principles of it more universal * 
than this. And farther still, a method of this 
kind introduces a certain artificial and human 
disquisition concerning the peculiar dsemon. 
Hence, in these doubts of yours there is no- 
thing sane. 



* According to the Egyptians every one received his 
proper daemon at the hour of his birth ; nor did they ascend 
any higher, in order to obtain a knowledge of it. For they 
alone considered the horoscope. See Porphyry apud Sto- 
baeum, p. 201, and Hermes in Revolut. cap. iv. 



321 



CHAR 

If, however, it be requisit 
truth concerning the peci 
say that he is not distril 
part of the heavens, or f 
visible elements; but t 
world, the all various life 
the all various body thn 
descends into generatioi 
portion is distributed to 
us, according to a pecu 
daemon, therefore, is estab! 
before the soul descends 
when the soul has recei^ 
the daemon immediately 
soul, gives completion to 
to body when it descends, 
the common animal of 
peculiar life, and imparts 
of all our thoughts and 
perform such things as he 
lect, and he continues to ^ 
sacerdotal theurgy, we ob 
spective guardian and lea 
then the daemon either ] 
government to a more e: 



led by 



Google 



322 

subjected to him, as contributing to his guar- 
dianship, or in some other way is ministrant to 
him as to his lord. 



CHAP. VII. 



From these things, therefore, it is easy to 
answer your next question. For the peculiar 
daemon does not rule over one of the parts in 
us, but, in short, over all the parts at once, and 
extends to every principle within us, in the 
same manner as he was distributed to us from 
the total orders in the universe. For that 
which it appears to you proper to add as an in- 
dication " that dcBmons preside over the parts of 
our body, so that one is the guardian o^ health, 
another of the form of the body, and another of 
the corporeal habits, and that there is one dcsmon 
who presides in common over all these ; " this you 
should consider as an argument that there is 
one daemon who is the guardian and governor 
of every thing that is in us. You must not, 
therefore, distribute one daemon to the body, 
but another to the soul, and another to in- 
tellect : for it is absurd that the animal should 
be one, but the daemon that presides over it 
multiform. For every where the natures that 



J 



323 

govern are more simple than the natures that 
are governed. And it will be still more absurd 
if the many daemons that rule over the parts 
are not connascent, but separated from each 
other. But you also make contrariety among 
them. For you speak as if " some of them were 
good, hut others had'' Evil dsamons, however, 
have no where a ruling allotment, nor are they 
oppositely divided to such as are good with 
equal authority and power. 



CHAP. VIII. 



Afterwards, abandoning these particulars, 
you pass on to the opinion of philosophy. But 
you subvert the whole hypothesis concerning 
the peculiar daemon. For if [as you say] " this 
doemon is a part of the soul" such, for instance, 
as the intellectual part, '* and he is happy who 
is in possession of a wise intellect'' there will no 
longer be any other more excellent or daemoni- 
acal order, presiding over, as transcending the 
human soul. But certain parts of the soul, or 
a certain divided power, will have dominion 
over many of the forms of life that are in us ; 
and will rule over these, not connascently, but 
as naturally exempt, and as transcending the 
whole of our composition. 

Y 2 



324 



CHAK IX. 

After this, therefore, you also mention another 
disquisition concerning the peculiar dBemon, 
which represents ** some €cs worshiping two, hut 
others tkree^ d(Bmons of this kind" The whole 
of this, however, is erroneous. For it is a 
false mode of proceeding to divide the causes 
that preside over us, and not refer them to 
one ; since this wanders from the union which 
has dominion over all things. The opinion, 
likewise, which distributes this daemon into 
body, and the government of body, draws down 
his domination to a certain most minute part 
So that what necessity is there for those who 
embrace this opinion to direct their attention 
to sacred operations, the first principle of them 
being futile? There is, therefore, of each of 
us one peculiar presiding dcemon ; but it is not 
proper to think that this deem on is common to 
all men ; nor again^ that he is common, but is 
peculiarly present with each individual. For 
division, according to species and difference of 
matter, do not receive the communion and 
sameness of things essentially incorporeal- 
*' Why then [you say] is the peculiar dcBmon in- 
voiced by a common mode by all men f '* Because 
the invocation of him is effected through one 



.1 



325 

God, who is the lord of daemons; who from 
the first defined to every one his peculiar 
d^mon ; and who, in sacred operations, unfolds 
to every one his proper daemon, according to 
his own proper will. For always in the the- 
urgic order secondary are invoked through 
primary natures. Among daemons, therefore, 
one common leader of the cosmocrators about 
generation sends to each of us his peculiar 
daemon. Hence, when the peculiar daemon is 
present with each of us, he then unfolds the 
worship which is proper to be paid to him and 
his name, and likewise delivers the proper 
mode of invoking him. 



CHAP. X. 



And this order is adapted to daemons ; one 
part of it being allied to those that are invoked ; 
another being derived from more ancient causes ; 
and the third part effecting a common com- 
pletion from both the others. Do not, there- 
fore, assimilate divine invocations to such as 
are human, nor those that are ineffable to those 
that are effable ; nor compare those that are 
prior to every boundary, and every indefinite 
mode, to those that are defined by men, or to 
indefinite actions. For our concerns have no- 



326 






i0* 



thing in common with theirs, whose whole 
genua and whole order transcend and govern 
the whole of our essence and nature. But here, 
especially, the greatest errors happen to men, 
when from human imbecility they infer any 
thing concerning the domination of dsemonSj 
and from things which are small, of no worth, 
and distributed into parts, form a conjecture of 
great, excellent, and perfect natures- And thus 
much in answer to you concerning the peculiar 
dsemon, in addition to what has been before 
said. 



32 



SECTIi 



CHA] 

It now remains, in th 
should speak concerning 
you make various inquir 
ing objections, afterwan 
interrogating. Adducin) 
said by you, we shall a 
You inquire, then, ''wh 
other latent way to felict 
path which recedes fron 
ble there can be an ascc 
the essence and perfectic 
prehended in the Gods^ 
cient power of them is 
by those who similarly 
lent natures, and genu 
with them, the beginnic 
is earnestly pursued ; if 
the contemplation of tri 



ized by Google 



328 

of intellectual science are to be found.* And 
a knowledge of the Gods is accompanied with 
a conversion to, and the knowledge of, our- 
selves. 



I 



CHAP. II. 

Hence you in vain doubt, '* that it is not proper 
to look to human opinions'' For what leisure 
can he have whose intellect is directed to the 
Gods to look downward to the praises of men ? 
Nor do you rightly doubt in what follows, viz. 
** that the soul devises great things from casual 
circumstances'' For what principle of fictions 
can there be in truly existing beings ? Is it not 
the phantastic power in us which is the maker 
of images ? But the phantasy is never excited 
when the intellectual life energizes perfectly. 
And is not truth essentially coexistent with 
the Gods? Is it not, likewise, concordantly 
established in intelligibles ? It is in vain, there- 
fore, that things of this kind are disseminated 
by you and others. But neither do those 

* In the original evravOa &q ovv Kai rj rrjs aXrjSeias ira/X5* 
Oea^ Kai rj rrjs voepas eiri^rjfirfs. But instead of rj rrjs vocpas 
aTTi^rjfxrjs, which appears to me to be defective, I read ij 



329 

things for which certain futile and arrogant 
men calumniate the worshipers of the Gods, 
the like to which have been asserted by you, 
at all pertain to true theology and theurgy. 
And if certain things of this kind germinate in 
the sciences of divine concerns, as in other arts 
evil arts blossom forth; these are doubtless 
more contrary to such sciences than to any 
thing else. For evil is more hostile to good 
than to that which is not good. 



CHAP. III. 



I WISH, in the next place, to reply to such 
assertions as calumniate divine prediction. For 
you compare with it ''certain other methods 
which are conversant with the prediction of 
future events*' To me, however, it does not 
appear to be any thing honourable if a certain 
natural aptitude is ingenerated in us to the in- 
dication of the future, just as in animals there 
is a foreknowledge of earthquakes, or winds, 
or tempests. For an innate presage of this 
kind is the consequence of acuteness of sensa- 
tion, or sympathy, or some other conjoint 
motion of the physical powers, and is not 
attended with any thing venerable and super- 
natural. Nor if some one, by human reasoning, 



Digntifedby * 



330 

or artificial observation, conjectures from signs 
those things of which the signs are indicative 
(as physicians foreknow that a fever will take 
% f place from the systole and torpor of the pulse), 

r neither does he appear to me to possess any 

thing honourable and good. For he conjec- 
tures after a human manner, and concludes 
from our reasoning power about things which 
are acknowledged to be effected naturally, end 
forms a judgment not very remote from the 
corporeal-formed order. Hence, if there is in 

\ . us a certain natural presentiment of the future, 

in the same manner as in all other animals, this 
power is clearly seen to energize ; this pre- 

j sentiment does not in reality possess any thing 

which is most blessed. For what is there 

k among the things which are implanted in us 

by nature in the realms of generation that is a 

* genuine, perfect, and eternal good ? 



) 



CHAP. IV. 



|> Divine divination, therefore, which is con- 

i( joined with the Gods, alone truly imparts to 

: f'f us a divine life ; since it participates of [divine] 

foreknowledge, and divine intellections, and 

renders us in reality divine. It likewise causes 

u us to be genuine participants of the good^ be- 



331 

cause the most blessed intellectual perception 
of the Gods is filled with all good. Hence 
those who possess this divination " do noty^ as 
you conjecture, ^^ foresee future events, and are 
nevertheless unhappy ^ For aU divine foreknow- 
ledge is boniform. Nor '^do they foresee ^ in- 
deed, what is future, hut do not know how to 
use this knowledge properly'^ For, together 
with the foreknowledge, they receive the beau- 
tiful itself, and true and appropriate order : and 
utility is also present with it. For the Gods, 
in conjunction with it, deliver a transcendent 
power of defence against the inconveniences 
which accede from nature. And when it is 
necessary to exercise virtue, and the ignorance 
of future events contributes to this, then the 
Gods conceal what will be for the sake of ren- 
dering the soul better. But when the igno- 
rance of what is future does not at all con- 
tribute to this, and foreknowledge is advan- 
tageous to souls, for the sake of their salvation 
and reascent [to divinity], then the Gods insert 
the foreknowledge which pertains to divination 
in the penetralia of the essences of souls. 



832 



CHAP. V. 

BoT why am I prolix about these particulars! 
For I have abundantly shown, in what has been 
before said, the transcendency of divine above 
human divination. It is better, therefore^ in 
compliance with your request, " to point out 
to you the may to felicity, and show you in ivhat 
tlie essence of it is placed" For from this the 
truth will be discovered, and at the same time 
all the doubts may be easily dissolved- I say, 
therefore, that the more divine* intelligible 
man, who was formerly united to the Gods by 
the vision of them, afterwards entered into an- 
other soul, which is coadapted to the human 
form, and through this became fettered with the 
bonds of necessity and fate. Hence it is requi- 
site to consider how he may be liberated from 
these bonds. There iSj therefore^ no other dissolu- 
tion of them than the knowledge of the Gods, For 
to know scientifically the good is the idea of 
felicity ; just as the oblivion of good, and de- 
ception about evil, happen to be the idea of 
evil. The former, therefore, is present with 
divinity j but the latter, which is an inferior 
destiny, is inseparable from the mortal nature- 

* For $€iiiTQ^ here, I read Bturr^pos* 



33 

And the former, indeed, 
of intelligibles* by sacre< 
abandoning principles, j 
measurement of the idea 
is a knowledge of the ft 
a departure from him, i 
God who is a superesse 
cient to himself. The 
serves the true life of 
back to its father; but 
the generation-rulingt t 
which is never permane 
ing. You must undei 
this is the first path t- 
souls an intellectual plei 
But the sacerdotal and 1 
is called, indeed, the g 
of wholes, or the seat. 
In the first place, likewii 
of purifying the soul, m 
the power which puri 
wards it causes a coapt 
power to the participat 

* In the original, by a strai 
serted here instead of t«v v<w 
true reading. The version of 

t t. e. Man, considered as a 
the irrational life ; for this ma: 
of generation. 



fed by Google 



4 . 



334 

good, and a liberation from every thing of a 
contrary nature ; and, in the last place, pro- 
duces a union with the Gods, who are the 
givers of every good. 



CHAP. VI. 

Moreover, after it has conjoined the soul to 
the several parts of the universe, and to the 
total divine powers which pass through it; 
then it leads the soul to, and deposits it in, 
the whole Demiurgus, and causes it to be in- 
dependent of all matter, and to be counited 
with the eternal reason alone. But my mean- 
ing is, that it peculiarly connects the soul with 
the self-begotten and self-moved God, and with 
the all-sustaining, intellectual, and all- adorning 
powers of the God, and likewise with that 
power of him which elevates to truth, and with 
his self-perfect, eflFective, and other demiurgic 
powers ; so that the theurgic soul becomes per- 
fectly established in the energies and demiurgic 
intellections of these powers. Then, also, it 
inserts the soul in the whole demiurgic God. 
And this is the end with the Egyptians of the 
sacerdotal elevation of the soul to divinity. 



335 



CHAP. VII. 

With respect to the good, likewise, they con- 
ceive that one kind is divine, and this is the 
God who is prior to the intelligible; but that 
the other is human, and is a union with the 
former. And these two kinds of good Bitys 
has unfolded from the Hermaic books. This 
part, therefore, is not, as you suspect, omitted 
by the Egyptians, but is divinely delivered by 
them. Nor do ^'theur gists disturb the divine 
intellect about trifling concerns ; " but they con- 
sult it about things which pertain to the purifi- 
cation, liberation, and salvation of the soul. 
Neither do they studiously employ themselves 
in things which are indeed difficult, yet useless 
to mankind; but, on the contrary, they direct 
their attention to things which are of all others 
most beneficial to the soul. Nor, in the last 
place, are " they deceived by a certain fraudu- 
lent dcBmon" who, having vanquished a falla- 
cious and daemoniacal nature, ascend to an in- 
telligible and divine essence. 



336 






CHAP. VIII. 

And thus we have answered, to the utmost of 
our ability, your inquiries concerning divination 
and theui^. It remains, therefore, at the end 
of this discussion, that I should beseech the 
Gods to aflfbrd me an immutable guard of true 
conceptions, to insert in me truth eternally, and 
to supply me abundantly with the participation 
of more perfect conceptions of the Gods, in 
which the most blessed end of our good is 
posited, and the confirmation of our concordant 
friendship with each other. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES, 



Page 9- Aneho. Porphyry in his Life of Plotinus, and 
also in the second book of his Treatise on Abstinence from 
Animals, informs us that he was familiar with a certain 
Egyptian priest, who, as Gale conjectures, is probably the 
priest to whom Porphjrry now writes. The diction, indeed, 
as Gale observes, denotes that the person to whom this 
Epistle is addressed was a very great prophet, who, never- 
theless, is afterwards said to be a priest. This, however, is 
not any thing novel or incongruous. For by Apuleius in 
Metamorph. lib. xi. the Egyptian Zaclas is said to be pro- 
pheta primarius et sacerdos, a chief prophet and priest. 

Page 9« Hermes the God who presides over language. 
The Egyptians celebrated two Hermes, the former of which 
is here signified by lamblichus. This deity is the source of 
invention, and hence he is said to be the son of Maia ; be- 
cause search, which is implied by Maia, leads invention into 
light. He bestows too mathesis on souls, by unfolding the 
will of his father Jupiter ; and this he accomphshes as the 
angel or messenger of Jupiter. Proclus in MS. G)mment. 
in Alcibiad. observes, "that this deity is the inspective 
guardian of gpnnastic exercises; and hence hmnas, or 
carved statues of Mercury, were placed in the Palflestrae ; of 
music, and hence he is honoured as the lyrist Xvpaios among 
the celestial constellations ; and of disciplines, because the 
invention of geometry, reasoning, and discourse is referred 
to this God. He presides, therefore, over every species of 
erudition, leading us to an intelligible essence from this 
mortal abode, governing the different herds of souls, and. 
dispersing the sleep and oblivion with which they are 
oppressed. He is likewise the supplier of recollection, the 
end of which is a genuine intellectual apprehension of 
divine natures." 

P. 10. The ancient pillars of Hermes, These pillars,, 
according to Amm. Marcellinus, lib. xxii. were concealed 
prior to the deluge in certain caverns, which were called 



338 



avpiyyes, springes, not far from the Eg3rptian Thebes. The 
second Hermes interpreted these pillars, and his interpreta- 
tion formed many volumes, as lamblichus informs us in 
Section viii. of this work. These pillars are mentioned by 
Laertius in his Life of Democritus ; by Dio Chiysostom in 
Orat. 49 ; by Achilles Tatius on Aratus ; and by others of 
the ancients. 

P. 15. There is, therefore, the good itself which is beyond 
essence, and there is that good which subsists according to 
essence. There are three orders of good ; viz. that which is 
imparticipable and superessential ; that which isimparticipa- 
ble and essential ; and that which is essential and partici- 
pable. Of these, the last is such as our nature contains; the 
good which ranks among forms is essential} ; and that which 
is beyond essence is superessential. Or we say that the 
good which subsists in us may be considered as a habit, in 
consequence of subsisting in a subject ; the next to this 
ranks as essence, and a part of essence, I mean the good 
which ranks among forms ; and the good which is beyond 
essence, is neither a habit, nor a part. With respect to the 
good, also, which subsists according to essence, it must be 
observed, that since forms are twofold, some alone distin- 
guishing the essences of the things fashioned by form, but 
others their perfections, the genus of essence, same and 
different, and the form of animal, horse, and man, and every 
thing of this kind, give distinction to essence and subjects ; 
but the form of the good, the beautiful, and the just, and in 
like manner the form of virtue, of health, strength, and 
every thing of a similar nature, are perfective of the beings 
to which they belong : and of some, essence is the leader, 
but of others the good. For, as Plato says, every thing 
except the one, must necessarily participate of essence ; and 
whatever preserves, gives perfection to, or defends any being, 
must be good. Hence, since these two are leaders, the one 
of forms which give subsistence to things, and the other of 
such as are the sources of their perfection ; it is necessary 
that one of these should be subordinate to the other ; I mean 
that the good which is allotted a coordination among forms 
that are the sources of perfection, should be subordinate to 
essence, which ranks among causes, whence subsistence 
originates, if the good is being, and a certain being. For it 
is either the same with, or different from, essence, which the 
Elean guest or stranger in the Sophista of Plato shows to be 
the genus of being. And if the good is the same with 



399 

essence^ an absurdity must ensue : for being and well-being 
are not the same. But if the good is something different 
from essence, it must necessarily participate of essence, in 
consequence of essence being the genus of all forms. But if 
genera are more ancient than forms, the good which ranks 
among forms, and is posterior to their genus, will not be the 
superessential good which reigns over intelligibles ; but this 
must be asserted of that good, under which this and every 
form is arranged, which possesses being, and which is the 
leader of the other genera of being, 

P. 15. But the other medium, which is suspended from the 
Gods, though it is far iitferior to them, is that of dcemons. 
In addition to what is said in this work by lamblichus con- 
cerning daemons, the following information about them from 
Olympiodorus, in his MS. Scholia on the Phsedo of Plato, 
is well worthy the attention of the philosophical reader : 

" Since there are in the imiverse things which subsist 
differently at different times, and since there are also natures 
which are conjoined with the superessential unities, it is 
necessary that there should be a certain middle genus, which 
is neither immediately suspended from deity, nor subsists 
differently at different times, according to better and worse, 
but which is always perfect, and does not depart from its 
proper virtue ; and is immutable indeed, but is not conjoined 
with the superessential [which is the characteristic of deity]. 
The whole of this genus is dsemoniacal. There are, also, 
different genera of daemons : for they are placed under the 
mundane Gods. The highest of these subsists according to 
the one of the Gods, and is called an unific and divine genus 
of deemons. The next subsists according to the intellect 
which is suspended from deity, and is called intellectual. 
The third subsists according to soul, and is called rational. 
The fourth, according to nature, and is denominated physi- 
cal The fifth according to body, which is called corporeal- 
formed. And the sixth according to matter, and this is 
denominated material." Ol3anpiodorus adds, ''or after 
another manner it may be said, that some of these are celes- 
tial, others etherial, others aerial, others aquatic, others 
terrestrial, and others subterranean. With respect to this 
division also, it is evident that it is derived from the parts of 
the universe. But irrational deemons originate fKum the 
aerial governors, whence, also, the Chaldean Oracle says, 

He/H<av tkarrjpa kwiov \d<ivuau r€ Kai vypw^ 

z 2 



340 

t. e. being the charioteer of the aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic 
dogs. " Our guardian daemons, however, belong to that order 
of daemons which is arranged under the Gods that preside 
over the ascent and descent of souls. For a more copious 
account of daemons see the notes on the First Alcibiades in 
vol. L of my translation of Plato. 

P. 22. One and the best solution will be obtained by sur 
veying the mode of ^divine allotment. 

The manner in which divine allotments subsist is admira- 
bly unfolded by Proclus in Tim. p. 43, as follows : " Since, 
according to a division of the universe into two parts, we 
have distributed allotments into the celestial and sublunary, 
there can be no doubt what the former are, and whether 
they possess an invariable sameness of subsistence. But the 
sublimary allotments are deservedly a subject of admiration, 
whether they are said to be perpetual or not. For since 
. all things in generation are continually changing and flowing, 
how can the allotments of the providential rulers of them be 
said to be perpetual } For things in generation are not 
perpetual. But if their allotments are not perpetual, how is 
it possible to suppose that divine government can subsist 
differently at different times } For an allotment is neither a 
certain separate energy of the Grods, so that sublunary 
natures changing, we might say that it is exempt, and 
remains immutable, nor is it that which is governed alone, 
so that no absurdity would follow from admitting that an 
allotment is in a flowing condition, and is conversant with 
all various mutations ; but it is a providential inspection, 
and unrestrained government of divinity over sublunary con- 
cerns. Such being the doubts with which this subject is 
attended, the following appears to be a solution of the diffi- 
culty. 

" We must say, then, that it is not proper to consider aU 
the natures that are in generation, and generation itself, as 
alone consisting of things mutable and flowing, but that 
there is also something immutable in these, and which is 
naturally adapted to remain perpetually the same. For the 
interval which receives and comprehends in itself all the 
parts of the world, and which has an arrangement through 
all bodies, is immoveable, lest, being moved, it should require 
another place, and thus should proceed from one receptacle 
to another, ad infinitum. The etherial vehicles, also, of 
divine souls, with which they are circularly invested, and 
which imitate the lives in the heavens, have a perpetual 



341 

essence^ and are eternally susp 
souls themselves, being full of pn 
ing a circular motion, accordin| 
revolution of the celestial orbs, 
the wholeness (okorqs) of the elen 
sistence, though the parts are all 
it is necessary that every form i 
never-failing, in order that the un 
that, being generated from an im 
immoveable in its essence. Bm 
or rather it is that which it is saic 
potion of one all-peffect form, 

" And here we may see the o 
nature of bodies. For the inter 
moveable according to every k 
vehicles of divine souls alone recei 
place ; for such a motion as this i 
tial mutation. And the wholene 
in its parts the other motions • 
remains perfectly immutable. Th 
which proximately divide the inte 
tribute likewise the heavens thei 
sublunary region are primarily, i 
which are in the interval of th( 
they make a distribution accordh 
of souls. And, in the third place 
the same, according to the total ; 
allotments of the Gods, therefoi 
they subsist differently at differen 
their subsistence proximately in tl 

"How, therefore, do the illumi] 
to these } How are the dissolutio 
And how is the same place at dif 
fluence of different spirits ? Ma] 
the Gods have perpetual allotme 
according to divine numbers, simi 
heavens, the parts of the earth a 
as they participate of aptitude, 
heavenly bodies, through the fi^ 
produce this aptitude ; divine illu 
imparting a power more excellen 
present with these parts of the ei 
effected by nature herself as a if« 
pressions in each of the illumine 
they spontaneously participate o1 



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842 



parts depend on the Gods^ nature inserts in such of them as 
are different, different images of the divinities. Times too 
cooperate in producing t£is aptitude, according to which 
other things, also, are governed ; the proper temperature of 
the air likewise ; and, in short, every thing by which we are 
surrounded contributes to the increase and diminution of 
this aptitude. When, therefore, conformably to a concur- 
rence of these many causes, an aptitude to the participation 
of the Grods is ingenerated in some one of the natures which 
are disposed to be changed, then a certain divinity is un- 
folded into light, which, prior to this, was concealed through 
the inaptitude of the recipients; possessing, indeed, his 
appropriate allotment eternally, and always extending the 
participation of himself, similarly to illuminations from the 
sun, but not being alwi|,ys participated by sublunary natures, 
in consequence of their inaptitude to such participation. 
For as with respect to partial souls such as ours, which at 
different times embrace different lives, some of them, indeed, 
choose lives accommodated to their appropriate Gods, but 
others foreign lives, through oblivion of the divinities to 
whom they belong ; thus, also, with respect to sacred places, 
some are adapted to the power which there receives its 
allotment, but others are suspended from a different order. 
And on this account, as the Athenian guest in Plato says, 
some places are more fortunate, but others more unfor- 
tunate. 

''The divine lamblichus, however, doubts how the Gods 
are said to be allotted certain places according to definite 
times, as, by Plato in the Timaeus, Minerva is said to have 
been first allotted the guardianship of Athens, and after- 
wards of Sais. For if their allotment commenced from a 
certain time, it will also at a certain time cease. For eveiy 
thing which is measured by time is of this kind. And 
farther still, was the place which at a certain time they are 
allotted, without a presiding deity prior to this allotment, or 
was it under the government of other Gods ? For if it was 
without a presiding deity, how is it to be admitted that a 
certain part of the universe was once entirely destitute of 
divinity ? How can any place remain without the guardian- 
ship of superior beings ? And if any place is sufficient to 
the preservation of itself, how does it afterwards become the 
allotment of some one of the Gods ? But if it should be 
said, that it is afterwards under the government of another 
God, of whom it becomes the allotment, this also is absurd. 
Forthe second God does not divulse thegovemmentandallot- 



ric 



843 

ment of the former^ nor do the G 
places of each other^ nor deemoni 
Such being the doubts on this si 
sayings that the allotments of th< 
unchanged^ but that the participa: 
deed^ enjoy the beneficent influen 
but at another are dejnived of it 
the mutaiions measured by time, i 
quentfy call the birthday of the God 

P. 23. Which also the aH of 
This art of divine works is called 
goras was initiated among the Si 
by lamblichus in his Life of that 
my translation of that work.) P 
this art^ as may be seen in the 
Psellus^ in his MS. treatise on ] 
before observed, "that magic fo 
sacerdotal science ; in which plat 
means that kind of it which is dei 
that theurgy was employed by th 
ries, I have fully proved in my t 
and Bacchic Mysteries.* This th 
same as the magic of Zoroaster, 
Alcibiades says, consisted in the 
which passage the following acco 
was, I have no doubt, originall; 
For the MS. Commentary of PrI 
this dialogue, does not extend to 
it ; and this Dissertation on Thei 
in Latin, was published by Ficii 
diately after his Excerpta, from t 
it seems highly probable that th 
Ficinus translated his Excerpta^ 
than that which has been preserv 
containing this account of the th< 

" In the same manner as lovei 
that beauty which is apparent 
which is divine; so the ancient 
sidered that there is a certain i 
natural things to each other, and o 
powers, and discovered that all i 

* See the second edition of this work 
BMophleteer. 



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344 

fabricated a sacred science from this mutual S3rmpathy and 
similarity. Thus they recognised things supreme in such as 
are subordinate^ and the subordinate in the supreme : in the 
celestial regions, terrene properties subsisting in a causal 
and celestial manner ; and in earth celestial properties, but 
according to a terrene condition. For how shall we account 
for those plants called heliotropes, that is, attendants on the 
sun, moving in correspondence with the revolution of its 
orb, but selenitropes, or attendants on the moon, turning in 
exact conformity to her motion ? It is because all things 
pray, and hymn the leaders of their respective orders; but 
some intellectually, and others rationally; some in a natural, 
and others after a sensible, manner. Hence the simflower, 
as far as it is able, moves in a circular dance towards the 
sun ; so that if any one could hear the pulsation made by its 
circuit in the air, he would perceive something composed by 
a sound of this kind, in honour of its king, such as a plant is 
capable of framing. Hence,, too, we may behold the sun 
and moon in the earth, but according to a terrene quality; 
but in the celestial regions, all plants, and stones, and 
animals, possessing an intellectual life according to a celes- 
tial nature. Now the ancients, having contemplated this 
mutual S3nnpathy of things, applied for occult purposes, 
both celestial and terrene natures, by means of which, 
through a certain similitude, they deduced divine virtues 
into this inferior abode. For, indeed, similitude itself is a 
sufficient cause of binding things together in union and con- 
sent. Thus, if a piece of paper is heated, and afterwards 
placed near a lamp, though it does not touch the fire, the 
paper will be suddenly inflamed, and the flame will descend 
from the superior to the inferior parts. This heated paper 
we may compare to a certain relation of inferiors to supe- 
riors ; and its approximation to the lamp, to the opportune 
use of things according to time, place, and matter. But the 
procession of fire into the paper, aptly represents the pre- 
sence of divine light to that nature which is capable of its 
reception. Lastly, the inflammation of the paper may be 
compared to the deification of mortals, and to the illumina- 
tion of material natures, which are afterwards carried up- 
wards, like the enkindled paper, from a certain participation 
of divine seed. 

" Again, the lotus, before the rising of the sun, folds its 
leaves into itself, but gradually expands them on its rising: 
unfol^g them in proportion to the sun's ascent to the 
zenith ; but as gradually contracting them as that luminary 



845 

descends to the west Hence this plants by the expansion 
and contraction of its leaves^ appears no less to honour the 
sun^ than men by the gesture of their eyelids, and the 
motion of their lips. But this imitation and certain partici- 
pation of supernal light is not only visible in plants, which 
possess nothing more than a vestige of life, but likewise in 
particular stones. Thus the sun-stone, by its golden rays, 
imitates those of the sun ; but the stone called the eye of 
heaven, or of the sim, has a figure similar to the pupil of an 
eye, and a ray shines from the middle of the pupil. Thus, 
too, the lunar stone, which has a figure similar to the moon 
when homed, by a certain change of itself, follows the lunar 
motion. Lastly, the stone called helioselenus, t. e, of the 
sun and moon, imitates, after a manner, the congress of 
those luminaries, which it images by its colour. So that all 
things are full of divine natures; terrestrial natures receiving 
the plenitude of such as are celestial, but celestial of super- 
celestial essences ; * while every order of things proceeds 
gradually, in a beautiful descent, from the highest to the 
lowest. For whatever particuliurs are collected into one 
above the order of things, are afterwards dilated in descend- 
ing, various souls being distributed under their various 
ruling divinities. 

'' In the next place, there are many solar animals, such 
as lions and cocks, which participate, according to their 
nature, of a certain solar divinity ; whence it is wonderful 
how much inferiors yield to superiors in the same order, 
though they do not peld in magnitude and power. Hence 
it is said, that a cock is very much feared, and, as it were, 
reverenced, by a lion ; the reason of which we cannot assign 
from matter or sense, but from the contemplation alone of a 
supernal order. For thus we shall find that the presence of 
the solar virtue accords more with a cock than with a lion. 
This will be evident from considering that the cock, as it 
were, with certain hymns, applauds and calls to the rising 
Sim, when he bends his course to us from the antipodes; and 
that solar angels sometimes appear in forms of this kind, 
who, though they are without shape, yet present themselves 
to us, who are connected wit^ shape, in some sensible form. 
Sometimes, too, there are daemons with a leonine front, who 
when a cock is placed before them, unless they are of a 
solar order, suddenly disappear; and this because those 
natures which have an inferior rank in the same order 

* t. f . Of Dfttures which are not connected with body. 



\j 



? 346 

f '. always reverence their superiors ; just as many^ on behold- 

I ing the images of divine men, are accustomed, fix>m the very 

; view, to be fearful of perpetrating any thing base. 
\ ^ "In fine, some thii4;s turn round correspondent to the 

• ** revolutions of the sun, as the plants which we have m«i- 
4 tioned, and others after a manner imitate the solar rays, as 
I the palm and the date ; some the fiery nature of the sun, as 
I "^ the laurel ; and others a different property. For, indeed, we 
1 may perceive that the properties which are collected in the 

f sun, are every where distributed to subsequent natures eon- 

, stituted in a solar order, that is, to angels, daemons, souls, 

animals, plants, and stones. Hence the authors of the 
ancient priesthood discovered from things apparent the 

• worship of superior powers, while they mingled some things 

and purified others. They mingled many things indeed 
together, because they saw that some simple substances 

I possessed a divine property (though not taken singly) su£S- 

) cient to call down that particular power, of which they were 

participants. Hence, by the mingling of many things to- 
gether, they attracted upon us a supernal influx ; and by the 
composition of one thing from many, they produced an 
assimilation to that one which is above many ; and composed 
statues from the mixture of various substances conspiring in 
sympathy and consent. Besides this, they collected compo- 
site odours, by a divine art, into one, comprehending a mui- 
! I titude of powers, and symbolizing with the unity of a dirine 

\ 1 essence ; considering that division debilitates each of these, 

. I but that mingling them together restores them to the idea of 

their exemplar. 

" But sometimes one herb, or one stone, is sufficient to a 
divine, operation. Thus a thistle is sufficient to procure the 
sudden appearance of some superior power ; but a laurel, 
raccinum (or a thorny kind of sprig), the land and sea 
onion, the coral, the diamond, and the jasper, operate as a 
^ safeguard. The heart of a mole is subservient to divination, 

but sulphur and marine water to purification. Hence the 
ancient priests, by the mutual relation and sympathy of 
things to each other, collected their virtues into one, but 
exp^ed them by repugnancy and antipathy; purifying 
when it was requisite with sulphur and bitumen, and sprink- 
ling with marine water. For sulphur purifies, from the 
sharpness of its odour ; but marine water on account of its 
fiery portion. Besides this, in the worship of the Gods, 
they offered animals, and other substances congruous to 
their nature ; and received, in the first place, the powers of 



I 



I 




847 

daemons, as proximate to natural substances and operations ; 
and by these natural substances they convoked into their pre* 
sence those powers to which they approached. Afterwards 
they proceeded from daemons to the powers and energies of 
the Gods ; partly, indeed, from daemoniacal instruction, but 
partly by their own industry, interpreting appropriate sjrm- 
bols, and ascendingtoaproper intelligence of the Grods. And 
lastly, lapng aside natural substances and their operations, 
they received themselves into the communionand fellowship 
of the Gods." 

The £mperor Julian alludes to this theurgical art, in the 
following extract from his Arguments against the Christians, 
preserved by CynL To yap €k ^cwv cis avOpayirovs a<^wcvov- 
fievov irvevfJMy (TwaviaKis fuu Kai €V oXiyois yiverai, Kai 
ovr« wavra avBpa tovtov furao-x^tv /o^Stov, ovre ev vavri 
Kaip<p. ravrju to Kai to vap' "E/Spaiois cttcAittcv, ovkovv ovSe 
irap* AiyvTTTtois cis tovto o-cofcTat. ^aiveraijSc Kat ra avro- 
^vri "XF^^P^ '^^^^ '^*^^ ypoviov €iKovra v€pio8oLs» o Se ^tXav- 
Opuyjros rjfidiv SeawoTrjs #ca» irarrjp Zevs €vvo>yo-as, 0)S av pfq 
ffavravcuri Trjs vpos rovs Oeovs aTro^cpqOtoiiev KOivtavias 6c- 
B(oK€V rjfiiv Bia Tft)V uptav tc^vcuv en-urK€\[/Lv, v<f> rjs Trpos Tas 
Xp€Las €^fi€v rrjv aTroxpdxrav p6rq6€iav, i. e, " For the in- 
spiration which arrives to men from the Gods is rare, and 
exists but in a few. Nor is it easy for every man to partake 
of this, nor at every time. This has ceased among the 
Hebrews, nor is it preserved to the present time among the 
£g3rptians. Spontaneous oracles, also, are seen to peld to 
temporal periods. This, however, our philanthropic lord 
and father Jupiter understanding, that we might not be en- 
tirely deprived of communion with the (rods, has given us 
observation through sacred arts, by which we have at hand 
sufficient assistance." For the cause why, at stated times, 
sacred arts, oracles, and inspiration fail, see the additional 
notes to my translation of lamblichus's Life of P3rthagora8. 

P. 24*. The pariicipant of the rational soul becomes the 
cause of suffering to the composite. See my translation of 
Plotinus on the Impassivity of Incorporeal Natures, in 
which this is beautifully and profoundly demonstrated. 
Produs, also, in Tim. lib. v. p. S40, admirably observes, that 
the motion of the nutritive powet, and the percussions of 
sense, are the causes of the perturbation of the soul ; but 
that we must not fancy that the soul suffers any thing through 
these. " For as if," says he, " some one standing on the 
margin of a river should behold the image and form of him- 



self in the floating streMn, he indeed will preseiTe his hct 
onchangefl ; but the stream, being all- variously moved, mJI 
change the image, so that at different times it will appear to 
him cliB'erent, oblique and erect, and perhaps divulsed and 
cootinuoiis. Let us suppose too, that such a one, through 
being unaccustomed to the spectacle, should think that it 
"was himself that suffered this distortion^ in consequence of 
surveying his shadow in the water, and thus thinkings shooM 
be afflicted and disturbed, astonished and impeded. After 
the same manner, the soul beholding the image of herself 
in bodyj borne along in the river of generation^ and variously 
disposed at different times, through inward passions and 
entemal impulses, is indeed herself impassive, but thinks 
that she suffers ; and being ignorant of, and mistaking her 
image for, herself, is disturbed, astonished, and perplexed/* 

P. 35, Since, however, the order of all the Gods u pro- 
foundltf united.-— -For the very exvtence in ihem^ whatever 
it 7na^ be, is the one of their tiatare^ 

The Gods are self-perfect superessential unities, so fer as 
they are Gods* For the principal subsistence of every 
thing is according to the summit of its essence, and this in 
the Gods is ike one, through which they are profoundly 
united to each other and to the one itself, or the ineffable 
principle of things, from which they are ineffably unfolded 
into light. Concerning this union of them with each other, 
Proclus admirably observes as follows, 'in his MS, Com- 
mentary on the Parraenides of Plato. " All these unities 
are in, and are profoundly united tOj each other, and their 
union is far greater than the communion and sameness which 
subsist in beings. For in the latter there is indeed a mutual 
mixture of forms, similitude^ and friendship, and a participa- 
tion of each other ; but the union of the Gods, as being a 
union of unities, is much more uniform, ineffable, aJid 
transcendent : for here alt are in all, which does not take 
place in forms or ideas ; * and their unmingled purity, an" 
the characteristic of each, in a manner far surpassing the 
diveniity in ideas, preserves their natures un confused, ana 
distinguishes their peculiar powers. Hence, some of t"*^ 
are more universal, and others more particular; some of 
them are characterised by permanency, others by progres- 
sion, and others by conversion, or regression* Some, aga^ 
are generative, others anagogic, or of an elevating natuit* . 



* ^OT in these, all are in ench, btit uot all in ftU* 



349 

and others demiurgic ; and universally^ there are difierec 
characteristics of different Gods^ viz. the connective, pei 
fective, demiurgic, assimilative, and such others as ai 
celebrated posterior to these ; so that all are in all, and ye 
each is at the same time separate and distinct. 

" Indeed we obtain this knowledge of their union an 
characteristics from the natures by which they are partici 
pated. For, with respect to the visible Gods, we say tha 
there is one soul of the sun, and another of the eartl 
directing our attention to the visible bodies of these divin: 
ties, which possess much variety in their essence, powen 
and dignity among wholes. As, therefore, we apprehen 
the difference of incorporeal essences from sensible inspec 
tion, in like manner from the variety of incorporeal essence 
we are enabled to know something of the unmingled dii 
tinction of the first and superessential unities, and of th 
characteristics of each. For each unity has a multitud 
suspended from its nature, which is either intelligible alone 
or intelligible, and at the same time intellectual; or intelle< 
tual alone ; and this last is either participated, or not pai 
ticipated ; and this again, is either supermundane, or mui 
dane. And thus far does the progression of the unitic 
extend." Shortly after he adds, " As trees by their ei 
tremities are rooted in the earth, and through this ai 
earthly in every part, in the same manner divine natures ai 
rooted by their summits in the one, and each is a unity an 
one, through its imconfused union with the one itself/* Se 
more on this most important of all subjects in the notes t 
my translation of the Parmenides. 

P. 50. For as in all other things, such as are principa 
primarily begin from themselves, Spc, 

Hence every God begins his own energy from himsel 
which Proclus thus demonstrates in Prop. 131 of his El< 
ments of Theology, '* For every God first exhibits th 
peculiarity of his presence with secondary natures in hin 
self; because he imparts himself to other things also accorc 
ing to his own exuberant plenitude. For neither is d< 
ficiency adapted to the Gods, nor fulness alone. For ever 
thing deficient is imperfect, and not being itself perfect, it j 
impossible it should make another thing to be perfect. Bv 
that which is full is alone sufficient to itself, and is not yc 
prepared to communicate. It is necessary, therefore, tha 
the nature which fills other things, and which extends t 
other things the communications of itself, should be supei 



350 

plennj, or eznbenuitfy fiiDL HcBee^ifai 

an ihiagB horn itwlf witii tlie ^ood iHndi ft < 

itMtK, it M e mb ei j u it^ fiJL A]idiftiiisbetiiec»e,alib- 

Kahm^iirKtiin Harff th^p^i^nliarily iliiAii ■■■!■■■ fr»f»«ili»t«j 

itwOl extend to tfaem the wnmuniffKW i rf mum ty U-ta r j 
goodnem, 

P. 59' I^is nqmnU also to kmm wkat umikmiuum it, md 
horn a is prodmceiL 

The ioHaming aooount of enthosasm, and of tbe different 
kinds of mmia mentioned by Plato in tiie nuBdras, fipom 
the Sdicrfia of Henneas cm that dialogue, is extiacted firom 
the additional notes to n^ tianslatian of Pkodns on the 
Tbostas, and is giren in tins place for the sake ai tlie 
Platonic Eng^h reader, who may not have that translation 
in his possession, as a vahiable addition to what is here siid 
by lambUchus cm tins sobjecrt 

''Since Plato here deliven Ibor kinds of mania, bj 
which I mean enthusiasm, and possession or inspuRstion 
from the Gods, vis. the mn^cal, the telestic, the pr^etie, 
and the amatoiy, preyious to the discnssian of eacrh, we most 
first speak about enthosiasm, and show to what part of the 
sool the enthosiastie energy pertains; whether each part of 
it possesses this energy ; ^aU enthusiasm is from the Gods; 
and in what part of the soul it is ingenerated ; or whether it 
subsists in something else more exceHent than scMiL Where, 
then, does that which is properly and primarily called en- 
thusiasm subsist, and what is it ? Of the rational soul there 
are two parts, one of which is dianoia, but the other opimmL 
Again, however, of dianoia, one part is said to be the lowest, 
and is properly dianoia, but another part of it is the highest, 
which is said to be the intellect of it, according to which the 
scml especially becomes intellectual, and which some call in- 
tellect in capacity. There is also another thing above this, 
which is the summit of the whole soul, and most allied to ike 
one, which likewise wishes well to all things, and always 
gives itself up to the Gods, and is readily disposed to do 
whatever they {dease. This, tcx), is said to he the one of the 
soul, bears the image of the superessential cme, and unites 
the whole souL But that these things necessarily thus sob- 
sist, we may learn as follows : The raticmal soul derives its 
existence from all the causes prior to itself, L e, from in- 
tellect and the Gods. But it subsists also from itself: for it 
perfects itsel£ So &r, therefore, as it subsists from the 
Gods, it possesses the one, which unites all its powers, and 



351 

all the multitude of itself^ and conjoins them to the i 
itself, and is the first recipient of the goods imparted by t 
Gods. It likewise makes all the essence of the soul to 
boniform^ according to which it is connected with the Go< 
and united to them. But so far as it subsists from intellc 
it possesses an intellectual nature^ according to which 
apprehends forms^ by simple projections^ or intuitions^ m 
not discursively ; and is conjoined to the intellect which 
above itself. And so far as it constitutes itself^ it possess 
the dianoetic power^ according to whichit generates scienc 
and certain theorems^ energizes discursively^ and collec 
conclusions from propositions. For that it constitutes 
gives subsistence to itself^ is evident from its imparting pe 
fection to itself; since that which leads itself to perfectio 
and imparts to itself well-being, will much more impart 
itself existence. For well-being is a greater thing thj 
being. If, therefore, the soul imparts that which is great 
to itself, it will much more impart that which is less. Hen< 
that which is primarily, properly, and truly enthusiasm fro: 
the Gods, is effected according to this one of the soul, whi< 
is above dianoia, and above the intellect of the soul ; whic 
one is at another time in a relaxed and dormant state. Th 
one, likewise, becoming illuminated [by the Gods], all tl 
life of the soul is illuminated, and also intellect, dianoia, as 
the irrational part, and the resemblance of enthusiasm 
transmitted as far as to the body itself. 

" Other enthusiasms, therefore, are produced about oth< 
parts of the soul,* certain daemons exciting them,t or tt 
Grods also, though not without the intervention of dsemon 
For dianoia is said to energize enthusiastically, when it dis 
covers sciences and theorems in a very short space of tim* 
and in a greater degree than other men. C^inion, lik< 
wise, and the phantasy, are said thus to energize when the 
discover arts, and accomplish admirable woiks, such, forii 
stance, as Phidias effected in the formation of statues, an 
another in another art, as also Homer says % of him wl: 
made the belt of Hercules, ' that he neither did nor wou] 
artificially produce such another.' Anger, likewise, is sai 

* By an unaccountable mistake here rw awftaros is inserted instead 
Tiff ^n/xt* > b^^ the mistake is not noticed by the German editor oi the 
Scholia. 

t And in consequence of this mistake, for avro in this place, we mu 
read avro. 

::: Odyss. xi. 612. 



352 

to energize enthusiastically, when in battle it eneigizes 
supematurally. 



I 



1 



Like Man, when braadidiiiig his q»ar, be ngedL* 

But if some one, yielding to desire, should eat of that which 
reason forbids, and through this should unexpectedly be- 
come well, you may say that desire also, in this instance, 
energized enthusiastically, though obscurely; so that enthu- 
siasm is likewise produced about the other parts of the sooL 
Enthusiasm, however, properly so called, is when this one 
of the soul, which is above intellect, is excited to the Gods, 
and is from thence inspired. But at different times it is 
possessed about the aptitudes of itself, by different Gods; 
and is more or less possessed when intellect or dianoia is 
that which is moved. As, therefore, when we inquire what 
philosophy is, we do not always accurately define it, but 
frequently, from an improper use of the word, call mathe- 
matics or physics philosophy and science ; we do the like 
also with respect to enthusiasm. For though it should he 
the phantasy which is excited, we are accustomed to call the 
excitation enthusiasm. Moreover, those who ascribe en- 
thusiasm to the temperatures of bodies, or the excellent tem- 
perament of the air, or the ascendency of exhalations, or the 
aptitudes of times and places, or the agency of the bodies 
that revolve in the heavens, speak rather of the cooperating 
and material causes of the thing than of the causes of it 
properly so called. You have, therefore, for the producing 
cause of enthusiasm, the Gods ; for the material cause^ the 
enthusiastically energizing soul itself, or the external sym- 
bols ; for the formal cause, the inspiration of the Godsabout 
the one of the soul ; and for the final cause, good. 

" If, however, the Grods always wish tiie soul what is 
good, why does not the soul always energize enthusiasti- 
cally ? May we not say, that the Grods indeed always 
wish the soul what is good, but they are also willing that the 
order of the universe should prevail, and that the soul, 
through many causes, is not always adapted to enthusiasm^ on 
which account it does not always enthusiastically energize ? 
But some say that the telestic art extends as far as to the 
sublunary region. If, therefore, they mean that no one 
of the superlunary and celestial natures energizes in the 
sublunary region, they evidently assert what is absurd. 



* niad XV. 605. 



353 

But if they mean that the Telestes, or mystic operators^ are 
not able to energize above the lunar sphere^ we say^ that if 
all the allotments of souls are sublunary^ their assertion will 
be true ; but if there are also allotments of souls above the 
moon^ as there are (for some are the attendants of the sun, 
others of the moon, and others of Saturn, since the Demiur- 
gus disseminated some of them into the earth, others into the 
moon, and others elsewhere), this being the case, it will be 
possible for the soul to energize above the moon. For what 
the whole order of things imparts to the soul for a very ex- 
tended period of time, this the soul is also able to impart to 
itself for a short space of time, when assisted by the Gods 
through the telestic art. For the soul can never energize 
above its own allotment, but can energize to the extent of it. 
Thus, for instance, if the allotment of the soul was as far as 
to philosophy, the soul would be able, though it should not 
choose a philosophic but some other life, to energize in that 
life somewhat philosophically. There are also said to be 
certain supermimdane souls. And thus we have shown 
how the soul energizes enthusiastically. 

But how are statues said to have an enthusiastic energy? 
May we not say, that a statue being inanimate, does not 
itself energize about divinity, but the telestic art, purifying 
the matter of which the statue consists, and placing round it 
certain characters and symbols, in the first place renders it, 
through these means, animated, and causes it to receive a 
certain life from the world ; and, in the next place, after 
this, it prepares the statue to be illuminated by a divine 
nature, through which it always delivers oracles, as long as 
it is properly adapted. For the statue, when it has been 
rendered perfect by the telestic art, remains afterwards 
[endued with a prophetic power] till it becomes entirely 
unadapted to divine illumination ; but he who receives the 
inspiring influence of the Gods receives it only at certain 
times, and not always. But the cause of this is, that the 
soul, when filled with deity, energizes about it. Hence, in 
consequence of energizing above its own power, it becomes 
weary. For it would be a God, and similar to the souls of 
the stars, if it did not become weary. But the statue, con- 
formably to its participations, remains illuminated. Hence 
the inaptitude of it entirely proceeds into privation, unless it 
is again, de twvo, perfected and animated by the mystic 
operator. We have sufficiently shown, therefore, that en- 
thusiasm, properly so called, is efiected about the one of the 
soul, and that it is an illuminatibn of divinity. 

Ax A 



i 



354 

" In the next place^ let us discuss the wder and the use of 

the four manias, and show why the philosopher makes 

mention of these alone. Is it because there are no other 

than these, or because these were sufficient for his purpose ? 

L ^ That there are, therefore, many other divine inspirations and 

If! manias Plato himself indicates as he proceeds, and prior to 

^ ' this, he makes mention of the inspiration from the Nymphs. 

But there are also inspirations from Tan, from the mother 

of the Gods, and from the Coiybantes, which are elsewhere 

fl mentioned by Plato. Here, however, he alone delivers 

' these four manias ; in the first place, because these alcme are 

'^ sufficient to the soul, in the attsdnment of its properapocatas- 

tasis, as we shall afterwards show ; and in the next place, 
because he delivers the proximate steps of ascent to the 
souL For the gifts of the Gods to all beings are many and 
incomprehensible. But now he delivers to us the energies 
of the Gods which are extended to souls. He delivers, 
however, these four manias, not as if one of them was not 
sufficient, and especially the amatory, to lead back the soul 
to its pristine felicity ; but at present the series and regular 
gradation of them, and the orderly perfection of the soul, 
are unfolded. As, therefore, it is possible for the tyrannic 
life, when suddenly changed, to become aristocratic, through 
employing strenuous promptitude and a divine allotment, 
but the gradual ascent is frqm a t3n:annic to a democratic, 
and from this to an oligarchic life, afterwards to a timocratic, 
and at last to an aristocratic life, but the descent and lapse 
are vice versa; thus also here, the soul being about to 
ascend, and be restored to its former felicity, is in the first 
place possessed vnth the musical mania, afterwards with the 
telestic, then with the prophetic, and, in the last place, with 
the amatory mania. These inspirations, however, conspire 
j with, and are in want of, each other ; so abundant is their 

^ conununion. For the telestic requires the prophetic * mania ; 

^ since the latter t interprets many things pertaining to the 

^ former. And again, the prophetic requires the telestic 

1 mania. For the telestic mania perfects and establishes 

^ oracular predictions. Farther still, the prophetic uses the 

j poetic and musical mania. For prophets, as I may say, 

always speak in verse. And again, the musical uses the 
prophetic mania spontaneously, as Plato says. But what 
occasion is there to speak about the amatory and musical 



t 

I 

1 

1 



I 



* For fjLovaiKTji here, it is necessary to read fiiwTiKiii. 
+ And for /MPTiKriv read /Mtn-iKri, 



355 

manias ? For nearly the same persons exercise both these, 
as, for instance, Sappho, Anacreon, and the like, in con- 
sequence of these not being able to subsist without each 
other. But it is very evident that the amatory mania con- 
tributes to all these, since it is subservient to enthusiasm of 
every kind : for no enthusiasm can be effected without 
amatory inspiration. And you may see how Orpheus 
appears to have applied himself to all these, as being in 
want of, and adhering to, each other. For we learn that he 
was most telestic, and most prophetic, and was excited by 
Apollo ; and besides this, that he was most poetic, on which 
account he is said to have been the son of Calliope. He 
was likewise most amatory, as he himself acknowledges to 
Musseus, extending to him divine goods, and rendering him 
perfect. Hence he appears to have been possessed with all 
the manias, and this by a necessary consequence. For there 
is an abundant union, conspiration, and alliance with each 
other, of the Gods who preside over these manias, vis. of 
the Muses, Bacchus, Apollo, and Love. 

" It remains, therefore, that we should unfold the nature 
of each of the manias, previously observing that those which 
are internal, and originate from the soul itself, and give 
perfection to it, are of one kind ; but the external energies 
of them, and which preserve the outward man, and our 
nature, are of another. The four external, however, are 
analogous to the four internal manias. Let us consider, 
therefore, in the first place, the internal, and which alone 
originate from the soul itself, and let us see what they effect 
in the soul. In order, likewise, that this may become 
manifest, and also their arrangement, let us survey from on 
high, the descent, as Plato says, and defluxion of the wings 
of the soul. From the beginning, therefore, and at first, the 
soul was united to the Gods, and its unity to their one. 
But afterwards the soul departing from this divine union 
descended into intellect, and no longer possessed real beings 
unitedly, and in one, but apprehended and surveyed them 
by simple projections, and, as it were, contacts of its in- 
tellect. In the next place, departing from intellect, and 
descending into reasoning and dianoia, it no longer appre- 
hended real beings by simple intuitions, but syllogistically 
and transitively, proceeding from one thing to another, from 
propositions to conclusions. Afterwards, abandoning true 
reasoning, and the dissolving peculiarity, it descended into 
generation, and became filled with much irrationality and 
perturbation. It is necessary, therefore, that it should recur 

A A 2 



356 

to its proper principles and again return to the place from 
whence it came. To this ascent and apocatastasis^ however, 
these four manias contribute. And the musical mania, in- 
deed, leads to S3rmphon3r and harmony^ the agitated and 
disturbed nature of the parts of the soul, which were hurried 
away to indefiniteness and inaptitude^ and were filled with 
abundant tumult But the telestic mania causes the soul to 
be perfect and entire, and prepares it to energize intellectu- 
ally. For the musical mania alone harmonizes and re- 
presses the parts of the soul ; but the telestic causes the 
whole of it to energize, and prepares it to become entire, so 
that the intellectual part of it may energize. For the soul, 
by descending into the realms of generation, resembles a 
thing broken and relaxed. And the circle of the same, or 
the hitellectual part of it, is fettered ; but the circle of the 
different, or the doxastic part, sustains many fractures and 
turnings. Hence, the soul energizes partially, and not 
according to the whole of itself. The Dionysiacal inspira- 
tion, therefore, after the parts of the soul are coharmonized, 
renders it perfect, and causes it to energize according to the 
whole of itself, and to live intellectually* But the ApoUoni- 
acal mania converts and coexcites all the multiplied powers, 
and the whole of the soul, to the one of it. Hence Apollo is 
denominated as elevating the soul from multitude tothecne. 
And the remaining mania, the amatory, receiving the soul 
united, conjoins this one of the soul to the Gods, and to in- 
telligible beauty. As the givers, therefore, of these manias 
are transcendently united, and are in each other, the gifts 
also on this account participate of, and communicate with, 
each other,, and the recipient, which is the soul, possesses an 
adaptation to all the gifts. ITiis, therefore, is the order, and 
these are the energies and powers within the soul itself, of 
these four manias. 

''But let us also consider their external energies on 
man, and what they outwardly effect about us. The musical 
mania, therefore, causes us to speak in verse, and to act and 
be moved rythmically, and to sing in metre, the splendid 
deeds of divine men, and their virtues and pursuits ; and, 
through these, to discipline our life, in the same manner as 
the inward manias coharmonize our soul. But the telestic 
mania, expelling every thing foreign, contaminating, and 
noxious, preserves our life perfect and innoxious, and 
banishing an insane and diabolical phantasy, causes us to be 
sane, entire, and perfect, just as the internal telestic mania 
makes the soul to be peHect and entire. Again, the p*^ 



35y 

phetic mania contracts into one the extension and infinity o 
time, and sees, as in one present now, all things, the past 
the ^ture, and the existing time. Hence it predicts wha 
will be, which it sees as present to itself. It causes us 
therefore, to pass through life in an irreprehensible manner 
just as the internal prophetic mania contracts and elevatei 
all the multiplied and many powers and lives of the soul t< 
the one, in onier that it may in a greater degree be pre 
served and connected. But the amatory mania convert! 
young persons to us, and causes them to become our friends 
being instructive of youth, and leading them from sensibh 
beauty to our psychical beauty, and from this sending then 
to intelligible beauty ; in the same manner as the interna 
amatory mania conjoins the one of the soul to the Gods. 

" All the above mentioned manias, therefore, are superioi 
to the prudent and temperate energies of the soul. Never 
theless, there is a mania which is coordinate with temper- 
ance, and which we say has in a certain respect a preroga- 
tive above* it. For certain inspirations are produced 
according to the middle and also according to the doxasti< 
reasons of the soul, conformably to which artists effed 
certain things, and discover theorems beyond expectation 
as Asclepius, for instance, in medicine, and Hercules in th< 
practic t life." 

Afterwards, in commenting on what Plato says of the 
mania from the Muses, viz. ''that it adorns the infinite 
deeds of the ancients," Hermeas observes, ''that the inward 
energy in the soul of the poetic mania, by applying itself tc 
superior and intelligible natures, imparts to subordinate 
natures harmony and order ; but that the external divinely 
inspired poetry celebrates the deeds of the ancients, and in 
structs both its contemporaries and posterity, extending 
its energies every where." But Plato says, " that he whc 
without the divinely-inspired mania of the Muses expects t( 
become a divine poet, will, by thus fancpng, become him 
self imperfect, anid his poetry will be vanquished and con- 
cealed by the poetry which is the progeny of mania.' 
Hermeas adds, " For what similitude is there between th( 
poetry of Chserilus and Callimachus, and that of Homer anc 
Pindar ? For the divinely-inspired poets, as being fillet 

* For vwo here, it is neoesgary to read vwtp, 

t The German editor of these Scholia, instead of wpaxriKUf which is th 
true reading in this place, and whichhe foundin the manuscript, absnrdl; 
Bubstitntes for it irvKTiicjh *> if Herooles was a pugilist. See my transla 
tion of the Dissertation of Maximus Tyrius, on the Practic and Theoreti 
Life. 



358 

from the Moses, always invc^te th^m, and extend to them 
all that they say." For a fbUer and most admirable acoount 
of the poetic manbi^ and of the difl^nrent species of poetxy by 
Produs, see the notes on. the tenth boc^c^ the Bepoblic, in 
my translation of Plato, and also the Introdncticm to my 
translation of the Rhetoric, Poetic, and Niccmiachean Ethics 
of Aristotle. 

From what is here said by Hermeas about enthusiasm^ 
the intelligent reader will ea^y see that ncme of the Roman 
poets, whose works have been transmitted to us, possessed 
that which is primarily, properly, and truly enthusiasm, or 
that highest species of it in which the one of the soul is illu- 
minated by a divine nature, and through transcendent 
similitude is united to it. As to Virgil, indeed, the prince 
of these poets, (though he invokes the Muse in the beginning 
of the .£neid, yet his invocation of her is but a partial and 
secondary thing. For he only calls on her to unfold to hini 
the causes that involved a man of such remarkable piety as 
.£neas in so many misfortunes : 

Mosa^ mihi causa memora, ftc 

And, confiding in his own genius, he begins his poem with- 
out soliciting supernal inspiration, 

Arma^ vimmqae cano, ftc 

To which may be added, that this placing himself before 
the Muse, resembles the ego et tneus rex of Wolsey. On 
the contrary, divinely-inspired poets, as Hermeas well ob- 
serves, knock, as it were, at the gates of the Muses, and thus 
being filled from thence exclaim, 

£(nr€T€ wv fjuoi Moixrou 
And, 

Mi^vtv octSc Sea — 
And, 

AvSpa fioi €W€jr€ Moixrou 

For being always extended to them, they dispose the whole 
of what they afterwards say as derived firom their inspiring 
influence. With an arrogance too, peculiar to the Romans, 
who, as a certain Greek poet * says, were a people 

Beyond measure proud. 

He associates himself, in his fourth Eclogue, with the 
Muses, as their equal : 

Stoelides Musse, panlo maj<»a canamus. 
* Vid. 01ympiod<nr. in Aristot Meteor. 



355 

Which reminds me of what Suetonius relates of Calij 
that he would place himself between the statues of C 
and Pollux, and confer privately with Jupiter Capitol 
fancying that he was intimate with, and of equal dignity i 
these divinities. And as to the poets that have lived i 
the fall of the Roman empire, it would be ridiculous to 
pose that they possessed this highest enthusiasm, as the; 
not believe in file existence of the sources from whence 
alone genuinely derived. 

P. 67. The attentive power of the soul. This is that 
or power of the rational soul which primarily appreh 
the operations of the senses. For the rational soul not 
has intellect in capacity, the dianoetic power, will, 
choice, but another power, which is called by the best o: 
Greek interpreters of Aristotle, as well as by lamblichi 
wpoa-eKTLKov, the attentive. This power investigates 
perceives whatever is transacted in man ; and says, I ur 
stand, I think, I opine, I am angry, I desire. An( 
short, this attentive part of the rational soul passes throug 
the rational, irrational, vegetable, or physical powers, 
therefore, it is requisite it should pass through all t 
powers, it will also proceed through the senses, and s 
see, I hear ; for it is the peculiarity of that which aj 
hends energies thus to speak. Hence if it is the attei 
power which says these things, it is this power which aj 
hends the energy of sensibles ; for it is necessary thai 
nature which apprehends all things should be one, i 
man also is one. For if one part of it should apprel 
these, and another those things, it is just, as Aiistotle 
as if you should perceive this thing, and / that, 
necessary, therefore, that the attentive power should b( 
indivisible thing. 

P. 74. For the human soul is on all sides darketie 
body, which he who denominates the river of Negligem 

the water of Oblivion, &c. wiU not by such appelL 

sufficiently express its turpitude, ''The whole of gei 
tion, as well as the human body," says Proclus in 
lib. V. p. 339, "may be called a river, through its i 
impetuous, and unstable flux. Thus also in the Repi 
Plato calls the whole genesiurgic nature- the river of L< 
in which are contained, as Empedocles says. Oblivion 
the meadow of Ate ; the voracity of matter, and the ] 
hating world, as the Grods say ; and the winding sti 



360 

under which many are drawn down, as the Chaldean oracles 

assert," 

P. 105, But there are a certain Jew who bt/ emplaning m 

certain supernatural power of inteiled, are r^noeed Jnffm 
nature, &c. The class to which these few belong is beaati- 
ftilly unfolded J as folio ws^ by Plotinusj in the beginning of 
his Treatise on Intellect, Ideas, and real Being, "Since 
all men from their birth employ sense prior to intellect^ and 
are necessarily first conversant with sensibles^ some pro- 
ceeding no farther, pass through bfe, considering these as the 
first and last of thingSj and apprehending that whatever is 
painful among these is evil, and whatever Is pleasant is 
good ; thus thinking it sufficient to pursue the one arul avoid 
the othen Those, too, among them who pretend to a 
greater share of reason than others, esteem this to be 
wisdom, being affected in a manner similar to more heavy 
birdSj who collecting many things from the earth, and being 
oppressed with the weight, are unable to fly on high, though 
they have received wings for this pnrpose from nature. 
But others are io a small degree elevated from things suh- 
ordinatej the more excellent part of the soul recalling tbeia 
from pleasure to a more worthy pursuit. As they are, how- 
ever, unable to look on high, and as not possessing any 
thing else which can aiford them rest, they betake them- 
selves, together with the name of virtue, to actions and the 
election of things inferior, from which they at first endea- 
voured to raise themselves, though in vain. In the third 
class is the race of divine men, who, through a niore excel* 
lent power, and with piercing eyes, acutely perceive super- 
nal Light, to the vision of which they raise themselves above 
the clouds and darkness, as it were, of this lower world, 
and there abiding despise every thing in tliese regions of 
sense ; being no otherwise de Ugh ted with the place which is 
truly and properly their own, than he who after many wan- 
derings is at length restored to his lawful country," See my 
translation of the whole of this treatise. 

P. 117. By mire, therefore, understand ever^ thing cor^ 
poreal-forvied and inateriaL " Matter," says Simplicius In 
his Commentary on the first book of Aristotle's Physics, 
" is nothing else th^m the mutation of sensibles, with respect 
to intelligibles, deviating from thence, and carried down- 
wards to non- being. Those things, indeed, which are the 
properties of sensibles are irrational, corporeal, distributed 



361 

into parts^ and passing into bulk and divulsion^ through an 
ultimate progression into generation^ visi. into matter ; for 
matter is always truly the last sediment. Hence, also, the 
Egyptians call the dregs of the first life, which they sym- 
bolically denominate water, matter, being as it were acertain 
mire. And matter is, as it were, the receptacle of gene- 
rated and sensible natures, not subsisting as any definite 
form, but as the state or condition of subsistence ; just as 
the impartible, the immaterial, true being, and things of 
this kind, are the constitution of an intelligible nature ; all 
forms, indeed, subsisting both in sensibles and intelligibles, 
but in the former materially, and in the latter immaterially; 
viz. in the one impartibly and truly, but in the other parti- 
bly and shadowy. Hence every form is in sensibles dis- 
tributed according to material interval." 

P. 120, Through the innovation and illegality of the 
Greeks, lamblichus says, that through this innovation and 
illegality, both names and prayers have at present lost their 
efficacy. For during his time, and for some centuries prior 
to it, the genuine religion of the Greeks was rapidly declin- 
ing, through their novelty and volatility, of which he here 
complains. Hence the Emperor Julian, in the fragments of 
his treatise against the Christians, preserved by Ciryl, says, 
speaking of the Christians, " If any one wishes to consider 
the truth respecting you, he will find that your impiety con- 
sists of the Judaic audacity, and the indolence and confusion 
of the heathens. For deriving from both, not that which is 
most beautiful, but the worst, you have fabricated a web of 

evils. Hence, from the innovation of the Hebrews, you 

have seized blasphemy towards the venerable Gods ; but 
from our religion you have cast aside reverence to every 
nature more excellent than man, and the love of paternal 
institutes." To yap aXrjOes €i ris virep v/juuv eOeXjoi <ricoir€tv, 
€vpvj(r€i vqv vfierepav ao-cjSeiav, €K T€ -nys lov&iiVc^s roXfirj^ 
Kai TT/s irapa rois €6v€a'iv aBia<fH>pias Kai ^(ySatorrjTO^ crvyKei- 
fX€V7)v. €^ afi<f}OLV yap ovri ro KaXXi^ov aA,Xa to xeipov 

cXxtxravTcs, ira/)v<^v icaica>v eipyacrao'de. Airo fuv ovv tij? 

E^pauav KaivoTOfuas to pXaxr^yAW rifMafievovs Oeovs rfpTra- 
arare* atro 8c rqs irap Yjfiiv 6prqa'K€i,ai ro [jl€V cvAajSes T€ 
o/AOv irpos airacrav rrjv Kpcirrova ^vctv, kow twv rrarpnav aya- 
mjriKov^ awoA-eXoMTttTc. 

P. 122. Prior to truly existing beings, and total princi- 
ples, &c. Of the two most ancient principles of all things 



362 

mentkmed in this ch^ter, as celelvated by Hennes, the 
first oorresponds to the ome itself oi Plato^ and the second to 
hamg Uself, or snperessential b^ng, the summit of the inteUi^ 
gible triad ; which two principles are beantifblly unfolded 
by Produs in the second and third books of his treatise on 
the Theol<^y of Plato. 

P. 122. He arramges ike God Emeph prior to, and as the 
leader of, the celestial Gods. — Btd prior to this he ammges 
the impartible ome, which he sa^s is the Jirst paradigm, amd 
which he denominates Eicton. It appears to me that the 
former of these two divinities is the same with Saturn, who 
is the summit of the intellectual order of Gods ; and that the 
latter is the animal itself of Plato, or the Phanes of 
Orpheus, who subsists at the extremity of the intelligible 
triad. For the Gvod Eneph is said by lamblichus to be an 
intellect intellectually perceiving itself, and converting in- 
tellections to itself; and these are the characteristics of 
Saturn. And the CkkL Eicton is said to be the first para- 
digm, and this is also asserted of Phanes. 

P. 123. For the books which are circulated vnder the 
name of Hermes, contain Hemudc opinions, though they 
frequently employ the language of the philosophers : for th^ 
were translated from the Egyptian tongue by men who were 
flat unskilled in philosophy. A few only of these books 
are now extant, but what is here said by lamblichus suffi- 
ciently proves their authenticity, and that they contain the 
genuine doctrines of Hermes. They have doubtless, how- 
ever, been occasionally interpolated by some of the early 
Christians, though not to that extent which modem critics, 
and that mitred sophist Warburton, suppose. 

P. 123. And such as have written concerning' the decans. 
The twelve parts, mentioned in the preceding chapter, into 
which the Egyptians divide the heavens, are the twelve signs 
of the zodiac But the thirty-six parts are the twelve houses 
of the planets, divided into three other portions, which they 
call decans. Ptolemy, however, in his Quadripartite, sul>- 
verts this doctrine of the Egyptians. Concerning these 
decans, see Scaliger ad Manilium, Kircher n. parte Oedipi, 
and Salmasius de Annis climactericis. Grale also gives the 
following extract from Hermes relative to the decans, which 
had not been before published, and which he derived from 
a MS. copy of Stobseus in the possession of Vossius^ 



363 

^afUV 0) T€ICVOV, ITipUKTlKOV TWV ttXaVTWV €tvat TO <ro)fi 

€vvorqarov ovv avro (o<nr€p kvk\o€i8€s <r)(rffw. vtto Se r 

kvkXov rov (Tfafiaros rovrov Tera^Sai tovs A^ Scicavovs, /i€<ro 

Tov iravros kvkXov rov ((aSiaKov, vorja-iofiev it)<rn-€p€i <f}vX 

Kas avTOvs irpot^axrdai rmv €v Koa-fK^ airavruiv (ravra auve 

ovras Kai rqpovvTas Tr\v twv iravrwv evra^iav. €Tt 

v<yq(rov o) Tar, on a'n-aOcis €uriv o)v ot aAAoi a^€p€s iraxrxovo'i 
ovT€ yap €7r€)(Ofi€voi rov Spofiov ^^pt^bvcrtv, ovre K<akvofi€V 
avaTToStfotxriv, aXX ov^ firjv airo rov (Jxaros rov rjXiov CKcn'O 
rat, air^p 'n'(w\ov<riv ot aXXoi a^epcs. cXevScpoi Sc ov7 
VTrcpavo) iravrtav, oxrirep <l>vXaK€s /cat eirurKOTTOi aKpi/SeLS Tt 

TravTos, ircpte^ovtai rt^ vv)(6rjfji^p<fi ro irav, €;(OiKrt irp 

rjfias TTjv fieyi^rjv Svvafiiv, i. e, " We say, O son, that tl 
body [of the universe] is comprehensive of all things. Coi 
ceive, therefore, this to be as it were of a circular form. — 
But under the circle of this body the thirty-six decans ai 
arranged, as the media of the whole circle of the zodiac. — 
These, likewise, must be understood to preside as guardiai 
over every thing in the world, connecting and containing a 

things and preserving the established order of all thing 

Farther still, understand, O Tat, that these decai 

are impassive to the things which the other stars suffe 
For neither being detained, do they stop their course, n< 
being impeded do they recede, nor are they, like the oth< 
stars, concealed as with a veil by the light of the sun. Bi 
being liberated above all things, they comprehend the un 
verse as the guardians and accurate inspectors of it, in tli 

Nycthemeron [or the space of night and day]. They ah 

possess, with respect to us, the greatest power." 

P. 125. So that what you add from Homer, " that tl 
Gods are flexible" it is not holy to assert. The words < 
Homer are a-prerrroi. Se t€ /cat ^€ot avrot, and are to be foun 
in Iliad ix. v. 493. But when lamblichus says, it is not ho] 
to assert the Gods are flexible, he means that it is not hoi 
according to the literal signification of the words ; divin 
flexibility indicating nothing more than this, that those wh 
through depravity were before unadapted to receive th 
illuminations of the Gods, and in consequence of this wei 
subject to the power of avenging daemons ; when afterwart 
they obtain pardon of their guilt through prayers and sacr 
fices, and through methods of this kind apply a remedy t 
their vices, again become partakers of the goodness of th 
Gods. So that divine flexibility is a resumption of the pai 
ticipation of divine light and goodness by those who throug 
inaptitude were before deprived of it. 



364 



P. ISO. Daemons preside over the parts of our body. 
Proclus in the fragments of his Ten Doubts conceming 
Providence, preserved by Fabricius in the eighth vol. of his 
Bibliotheca Grseca, observes, ''That the Gods, with an 
exempt transcendency, extend theirprovidence to all things, 
but that daemons, dividing their superessential subsistence, 
receive the guardiansliip of different herds of animals, dis- 
tributing the providence of the Gods, as Plato says, as far as 
to the most ultimate division. Hence some of them preside 
over men, others over lions or other animals, and others 
over plants ; and still more partially, some are the inspec- 
tive guardians of the eye, others of the heart, and others of 
the liver." He adds, " all things, however, are full of Grods, 
some of whom exert their providential energies inmiediately^ 
but others through daemons as media: not that the Gods are 
incapable of being present to all things, but that ultimate 
arethemselvesunabletoparticipateprimarynatures." Hence 
it must be said that there is one principal deemon, who is 
the guardian and governor of every thing that is in us, and 
many daemons subordinate to him, who preside over our 
parts. 

P. 134. Hence it is requisite to consider horv he may he 
liberated from these bonds, " The one salvation of the soul 
herself," says Proclus in Tim. lib. v. p. 330, " which is ex- 
tended by the Demiurgus, and which liberates her from the 
circle of generation, from abundant wanderings, and an in- 
efficacious life, is her return to the intellectud. form, and a 
flight from every thing which naturally adheres to us from 
generation. For it is necessary that the soul, which is 
hurled like seed into the realms of generation, should lay 
aside the stubble and bark, as it were, which she obtained 
from being disseminated into these fluctuating realms ; and 
that purifying herself from every thing circumjacent, she 
should become an intellectual flower and fruit, delighting in 
an intellectual life, instead of doxastic nutriment, and pursu- 
ing the uniform and simple energy of the period of same^ 
ness, instead of the abundantly wandering motion of the 
period which is characterized by difference. For she con- 
tains each of these circles, and twofold powers. And of her 
horses one is good, but the other the contrary [as is said in 
the Phaedrus]. And one of these leads her to generation, 
but the other from generation to true being. The one also 
leads her round the genesiurgic, but the other round the in- 
tellectual circle. For the period of the same and the similar 
elevates to intellect, and an intelligible nature^ and to the 



365 

first and most excellent habit. But this habit is that ace 
ing to which the soul being winged governs the whole w< 
becoming assimilated to the Gods themselves. And tli 
the universal form of life in the soul, just as that is the 
tial form, when she falls into the last body, and becc 
something belonging to an individual, instead of belon, 
to the universe. The middle of these, also, is the pa 
universal, when she lives in conjunction with her mii 
vehicle, as a citizen of generation. Dismissing, there: 
her first habit, which subsists according to an alliance tc 
whole of generation, and laying aside the irrational na 
which connects her with generation, likewise governing 
irrational part by reason, and extending opinion to intel 
she will be circularly led to a happy life from the wandei 
about the regions of sense ; which life those that are initi 
by Orpheus in the mysteries of Bacchus and Proserj 
pray that they may obtain, together with the allotmer 
the [celestial] sphere, and a cessation of evil. But if 
soul necessarily lives well, when living according to 
circle of sameness, much more must this be the case 
divine souls. It is, however, possible for our soul to 
according to the circle of sameness, when purified, as I 
says. Cathartic virtue, therefore, alone must be callec 
salvation of souls; since this cuts off^ and vehemently ol 
rates, material natures, and the passions which adhere 
from generation ; separates the soul and leads it to intel 
and causes it to leave on earth the vehicles with whicl 
invested. For souls in descending receive from the elen 
different vehicles, aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial ; and 
at last enter into this gross bulk. For how, without a med 
could they proceed into this body from immaterial spiri 



THE END. 



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permanent bibliographical value. We observe that he describes a large 
number of pieces printed at the private press of Charles Clark, of Great 
Totham, Essex, which possess little interest beyond curiosity ; but he seems 
to have none of the dialect specimens of Prince L..L. Buonaparte, and the 
only examples of Mr. DanieFs Oxford Press, that we have found are under 
the head of Canon Dixon [others have since been noticed]. The Appleton 
Press of Mr. W. J. Linton is fairly represented, and so is that of the late 
Halliwell-Phillipps. Altogether the curious reader will: find here much 
to interest him in one of the by-paths of literature." — The Academy, 



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